Pre  Ph.D Examination Notification  August  2014::
==================================================

PAPER – I Subject Code
S. No Subject
1 Theory of Elasticity and Plasticity 1301101
2 Experimental Stress Analysis 1301102
3 Finite Element Method 1301103
4 Mechanics of composite Materials 1301104
5 Advanced Structural Analysis 1301105
6 Fracture Mechanics of concrete structures 1301106
7 Mechanical Vibrations 1301107
8 Theory of plates and shells 1301108
9 Structural Reliability 1301109
10 Advanced Concrete Technology 1301110
11 Ground Improvement Techniques 1301111
12 Advanced Soil Mechanics 1301112
13 Earth And Rock Fill Dams 1301113
14 Pavement Analysis and Design 1301114
15 Expansive Soils 1301115
16 Foundation Engineering 1301116
17 Numerical Methods In Geotechnical Engineering 1301117
18 Earth Retaining Structures 1301118
19 Computational And Statistical Methods 1301119
20 Ground Water Exploration And Watershed Management 1301120
21 Hydraulic Structures 1301121
22 Irrigation Management 1301122
23 Stochastic Hydrology 1301123
24 Urban Drainage & Waste Water Treatment 1301124
25 Water resources systems planning and Management 1301125
26 Traffic Engineering 1301126
27 Urban Transportation Planning 1301127
28 Intelligent Transportation System 1301128
29 Environmental Chemistry 1301129
30 Environmental Impact Assessment 1301130
31 Industrial Wastewater Management 1301131
PAPER – II Subject Code
S. No Subject
1 Design of Masonry Structures 1301201
2 Structural Dynamics 1301202
3 Earthquake Resistant Design of structures 1301203
4 Low Cost Housing Techniques 1301204
5 Repair and Rehabilitation of Structures 1301205
6 Stability of Structures 1301206
7 PreStressed Concrete and steel structures 1301207
8 Artificial Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic 1301208
9 Analysis And Design Of Tall Buildings 1301209
10 Optimization Techniques in Structural Engineering 1301210
11 Design With Geosynthetics 1301211
12 GeoEnvironmental Engineering 1301212
13 Rock Mechanics and Engineering 1301213
14 Soil Dynamics and Machine Foundations 1301214
15 SoilStructure Interaction 1301215
16 Critical State Soil Mechanics 1301216
17 Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering 1301217
18 Channel And River Hydraulics 1301218
19 Engineering Hydrology 1301219
20 Ground water management & modeling 1301220
21 Hydropower development 1301221
22 NeuroFuzzy Techniques & Computer Programming 1301222
23 Principles and Applications of Remote Sensing and GIS 1301223
24 Pavement Construction, Evaluation and Management 1301224
25 Air Pollution & Control Technology 1301225
26 Solid & Hazardous Waste Management 1301226
27 PhysicoChemical Process For Water and Waste water treatment 1301227
PAPER – I
THEORY OF ELASTICITY AND PLASTICITY
UNITI
Introduction: Elasticity – Notation for Forces and Stresses – Components of Stresses – Components of Strain – Hooke’s Law. Plane Stress and Plane Strain analysis – Plane Stress – Plane strain – Differential Equations of equilibrium – Boundary conditions – Compatibility equations  Stress function – Boundary Conditions.
UNITII
Two Dimensional Problems: in Rectangular CoOrdinates – Solution by polynomials – Saint – Venant’s Principle – Determination of Displacements – Bending of Simple beams – Application of Fourier Series for two dimensional problems for gravity Loading. Two Dimensional problems in Polar Coordinates General Equations in polar Coordinates – Stress Distribution Symmetrical about an axis – Pure bending of curved bars  Strain Components in Polar Coordinates – Displacements for Symmetrical stress Distributions – Circular discs Stresses on plates with circular holes
UNITIII
Three Dimensional Problems: Analysis of Stress and Strain in Three Dimension Principal Stress – Stress Ellipsoid and stress director surface – Determination of Principal stresses Maximum shear stresses – Homogeneous Deformation – Principle Axes of Strain. General Theorems: Differential equations of equilibrium – Conditions of Compatibility Determination of Displacement – Equations of Equilibrium in Terms of Displacements – Principle of Superposition – Uniqueness of Solution –Reciprocal theorem.
UNITIV
Torsion of Prismatic Bars:
Torsion of Prismatic Bars – Bars with Elliptical Cross Section – Other elementary Solution – Membrane Analogy – Torsion of Rectangular Bars – Solution of Torsional Problems by Energy method – use of soap Films in Solving Torsional problems – Hydro dynamical Analogies – Torsion of Bars.
UNITV
Theory of Plasticity: Introduction – Concepts and Assumptions – Yield criteria.
References:
Theory of Elasticity Timoshenko & Goodier.
Theory of Elasticity – Sadhu Singh
EXPERIMENTAL STRESS ANALYSIS
UNIT I
Basic equations and Plane Elasticity Theory: Introduction, Strain equations of Transformation, Compatibility, StressStrain RelationsTwo dimensional State of Stress. The PlaneElastic problem, The PlaneStrain Approach, Plane Stress, Airy’s Stress functionCartesian CoordinatesTwo dimensional problems in Polar Coordinates, Polar Components of Stress in terms of Airy’s Stress function, Forms. Principles of Experimental Approach: Merit of Experimental Analysis introduction, uses of experimental stress analysisAdvantages of experimental stress analysis, Different methods, Simplification of problems.
UNIT II
Strain Measurement using Strain Gauges: Definition of strain and its relation to Experimental Determinations, properties of straingauge systems, Types of strain gauges, Mechanical and Optical strain gauges. Electrical Strain Gauges Introduction, LVDT  resistance strain gauge  various types  gauge factor, Materials for adhesion base, etc. Strain Rosettes: Introduction, The three element rectangular Rosette  The delta rosette  Corrections for Transverse strain effects.
UNIT III
Brittle Coating Method: Introduction, Coating stresses  Failure theories  Brittle coating Crack pattern  Crack detection  Types of Brittle coating  Test procedures for brittle coating analysis  Calibration procedures  Analysis of brittle coating data.
UNIT IV
Theory of Photo Elasticity: Introduction, Temporary double refraction  The stress optic law  Effects of stressed model in a Polaris cope for various arrangements – Fringe sharpening, Brewster stress optic law.
UNIT V
Two Dimensional Photo Elasticity: Introduction, Isochromatic Fringe patterns – Isoclinic fringe patterns, passage of light through plane Polaris cope and circular Polaris cope, Isoclinic fringe pattern  Compensation techniques  calibration methods, separation methods, scaling Model to Proto type stress Materials for photo  elasticity, properties of photo elastic materials.
REFERENCES :
Experimental Stress Analysis by J.W.Dally and W.F.Riley
Experimental Stress Analysis by Dr. Sadhu Singh
Experimental Stress Analysis by Dove and Adams
Experimental Stress Analysis  L.S. Srinath
Experimental Stress Analysis – Lee
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
Unit I:
Introduction: Review of  boundary conditions strain, stress and force in elementreaction torsional element. trussesIsoparametric element. –natural coordinates.
stiffness method displacement field  Integral formdifferential form  “RayleighRitz method” of functional approximation  variational approaches weighted residual methods concept of FEM. Bar and torsional elements: Degree of freedom –simple element higher order elementnodal displacement vector shape functions FE formulationdiscrimination stiffness matrix of element element nodal load vectorassembling total potential in terms of FEM formulation
Unit II:
Beam, frame and grid elements: Degree of freedom  displacement vector  simple element higher order elementnodal displacement vector  shape functions discrimination stiffness matrix of element element nodal load vectorassemblingtotal potential in terms of FE formulation boundary conditions strain, stress and forces in elementsreactions frame elementGrid elementBeams  frames Grid structures. Isoparametric element –natural coordinates.
Unit III:
Membrane element: 2 Dimensional structures Plane stressplane strain triangular elementsCST elementLST elementrectangular elementsLegrangian family of elementsSerendipity family of elements Shape functions – nodal displacement vectorFEM formulationelement stiffness matrix element nodal load vector due to body forces, traction and concentrated loads Isoparametric element Area coordinates strain vector and stress vector in element. Axisymmetric solids: Modelling as 2D problem: stressstrain relations material stiffness matrixdof  Triangular element rectangular elementshape functions Displacement function FE formulation stiffness matrix of element nodal loads strain vector, stress vector in elements reactions. Isoparametric elementArea coordinates.
Unit IV:
3 Dimensional stress analysis: dof – types of elements simple elements – higher order elementsdisplacement function shape functions nodal displacement verctor Nodal load vector stiffness matrix of element FE formulation – volume coordionates isoparametric elements strain vector and stress vector in element. Plate structures & shell structures: dof displacement field – nodal displacement vector shape function Finite Element Formulation of plate structures types elements strain vector and stress vector in elementtypes of elements.
Unit V:
Introduction to Nonlinear Finite Element Methods types of nonlinear problemsIntroduction to dynamic analysis using Finite Element Method  Development of simple programs for simple structures Introductio of FEM package( only class work)
REFERENCES:
Concepts and applications of Finite Element Analysis – Robert D. Cook, Michael E Plesha, John Wiley & sons Publications
A first course in the Finite Element Method – Daryl L. Logan, Thomson Publications.
Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering Tirupati R. Chandrupatla, Ashok D. Belgunda, PHI publications
Fundamentals of Finite Element Analysis David V. Hutton, Tata McGrawHill
Finite element Analysis Theory and programming – C.S. Krishna Murthy, Tata Mc Gra Hill.
Finite element Analysis – P.Seshu, PHI
Finite element method – O.C. Zeinkiewicz, Tata Mc Gra Hill, 2007
MECHANICS OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS
UNITI
Classification of Composite materials. Introduction to composite materials, including fabrication processes, properties, design concepts, assembly, and applications. Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC’s) Metal Matrix Composites (MMC’s) Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC’s).
UNITII
Elastic properties and stressstrain relations –fracture behavior Dispersion strengthened particle reinforced and fiber reinforced composite laminates  elastic anisotopic properties, the directional dependence of different properties, and the mechanical properties of thin laminates.
UNITIII
Properties of matrix and reinforced materialsorthotropic coefficients needed for design activities, the HillTsai failure criterion. Bending and torsion of composite beams, and the bending of thick composite plates. Micromechanics and principles of strengthening.
UNITIV
Fabrication methods and structural applications of different types of composite materials  thermo elastic properties
UNITV
Failure analysis and the bonding of cylinders, sandwich beam buckling and flexure shear, and vibrations in composite plates
REFERENCES:
Engineering Mechanics of composite materials by Isaac M. Daniel and H. Thomas Hahn
An introduction to composite materials by by D. Hull and T.W. Clyne
The Theory of Composites  Graeme W. Milton Cambridge.
ADVANCED STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
UNIT I
Analysis of Axially loaded bars, beams and portal frames by RayleighRitz method
UNIT II
Analysis of Axially loaded bars, beams and portal frames by Gelarkin’s method
UNIT – III
Analysis of beams and plates by Finite Difference Method
UNIT – IV
Analysis of Statically determinate and Indeterminate beams, Frames and Trusses by Stiffness method
UNIT –V
Analysis of Statically determinate and Indeterminate beams, Frames and Trusses by Flexibility method
UNIT – VI
Approximate methods of analysis of Multistorey frames
UNIT – VII
Influence lines for indeterminate beams, Arches and Trusses
UNIT VIII
Cables and suspension bridges.
TEXT BOOKS
Wang C. K., “Indeterminate Structural Analysis”, McGrawHill, 2nd Edition, 2000.
Sinha, N. C. and Gayen, P. K., Advanced theory of structures, Dhanpat Rai & Sons, 4th Edition, 2002
Reference Books
Reddy C.S., Basic Structural Analysis, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co., 3rd edition, 2001
Hibbeler R.C, Structural Analysis, Macmillan Pub.Co., 2nd Edition, 2000
Au T and Christiano, P., Structural analysis, Prentice Hall, 1st Edition, 2002
FRACTURE MECHANICS OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES
UNITI
Introduction: Fundamentals of elastic and plastic behaviour of materials stresses in a plate with a hole – Stress Concentration factor modes of failure Brittle fracture and ductile fracture history of fracture mechanicsGriffiths criteria of cracks mode I, mode II and mode III failure.
UNITI
Principles of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics: SOM vs Fracture Mechanics stressed based Criteria for fracture Stress Intensity Factors KI KII and KIII – Critical stress Intensity Factors, KIc KIIc and KIIc – crack tip plastic zone – Erwin’s plastic zone correction Critical crack lengthLoad carrying capacity of a cracked component Design of components based on fracture mechanics.
UNITI
Griffith’s criteria Criteria for crack propagation Energy release rate , GI GII and GIII  Critical energy release rate GIc , GIIc and GIIIc – surface energy  R curves – compliance JIntegrals:
UNITI
Material characterisation by Crack Tip Opening Displacements (CTOD) Crack Mouth Opening Displacement (CMOD) Critical crack tip opening displacement (CTODc) –critical Crack Mouth Opening Displacement (CMODc)Determination of fracture parameters. Experimental determination of fracture parameters KIc , GIc, CTODc and critical JIntegral.for brittle and quasi brittle materials like concrete and rock Specimen geometry .
UNITI
Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics for mode I quasi brittle fracture(Concrete): General quasibrittle fractureFicticious crack approach  Hillerborg’s Fictitious crack modelBazanth’s crack band model Effective elastic crack approachTwo Parameter model Bazanth’ Size effect modeleffective crack modelsoftening Applications of Fracture Mechanics to Concrete structures: Size effect on nominal strengthTension ,Bending, Shear and torsion of RRC membersConcrete dams Interfacial fracture mechanics
REFERENCES :
Engineering Fracture Mechanics S.A. Meguid, Elsevier Applied Science Publications.
Elementary engineering fracture mechanics – David Broek – Sijthoff & Noordhoff – Alphenaan den Rijn – Netherlands.
Elements of Fracture Mechanics – Prasanth Kumar, wiley Eastern Publications
Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and applications – T. L. Andrason, PhD, CRC publications
Fracture Mechanics of Concrete: Applications of fracture mechanics to concrete, Rock, and other quasibrittle materials, Surendra P. Shah, Stuart E. Swartz, Chengsheng Ouyang, John Wiley & Son publications.
Fracture mechanics of concrete structures – Theory and applications – Rilem Report – Edited by L. Elfgreen – Chapman and Hall – 1989.
Fracture Mechanics – Applications to Concrete – Edite
MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS
UNITI
Single degree Freedom systems: Undamped and damped free vibrations: forced vibrations – Viscous damper – Coulomb damper– Response to harmonic excitation, rotating unbalance and support excitation – Vibration isolation and transmissibility  Torsional vibrations. Vibration measuring instruments: Vibrometers, velocity meters & accelerometers.
UNITII
Two degree freedom systems: Principal modes – undamped and damped free and forced vibrations – undamped and damped vibration absorbers – Torsional vibrations.
UNITIII
Multi degree freedom systems: Matrix formulation, stiffness and flexibility influence coefficients; Eigen value problem; normal modes and their properties; Free and forced vibration by modal analysis; method of matrix inversion; Torsional vibrations of multi –rotor systems and geared systems.
UNITIV
Continuous systems: Beams and Beams on Elastic foundation Critical speeds of shafts: Critical speeds without and with damping, secondary critical speed.
UNITV
Numerical Methods: Rayliegh’s, stodola’s, Matrix iteration and Holzer’s methods. Continuous systems: Free vibration of strings – longitudinal oscillations of barstraverse vibrations of beams Torsional vibrations of shafts.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Vibrations by W.T. Thomson.
2. Mechanical Vibrations by G.K. Groover.
REFERENCES:
1. Elements of Vibration Analysis by Meirovitch.
2. Mechanical Vibrations by Den Hortog.
3. Mechanical Vibrations – Schaum series.
4. Vibration problems in Engineering by S.P. Timoshenko
THEORY OF PLATES AND SHELLS
UNITI
Derivation of governing differential equation for plate– in plane bending and transverse bending effects Rectangular plates: Plates under various loading conditions like concentrated, uniformly distributed load and hydrostatic pressure. Navier and Levy’s type of solutions for various boundary condition.
UNITII
Circular plates: Symmetrically loaded, circular plates under various loading conditions, Annular plates.
UNITIII
Introduction to Shells: Single and double curvature Equations of Equilibrium of Shells: Derivation of stress resultants, Principles of membrane theory and bending theory.
UNITIV
Cylindrical Shells: Derivation of the governing DKJ equation for bending theory, details of Schorer’s theory. Application to the analysis and design of short and long shells. Use of ASCE Manual coefficients for the design.
UNITV
Beam theory of cylindrical shells: Beam and arch action. Design of diaphragms  Geometry analysis and design of elliptic Paraboloid, Conoidal and Hyperbolic Paraboloid shapes by membrane theory.
REFERENCES:
Theory of Plates and Shells – Timoshenko and Krieger, McGrawHill book company, INC, New york.
K. Chandra Sekhara
A Text Book of Plate Analysis – Bairagi, K, Khanna Publisher, New Delhi.
Design and Construction of Concrete Shell Roofs – Ramaswamy, G.S, Mc Graw – Hill, New York.
“Theory of Plates and Shells” by Timeshenko, S. and WernewskyKriegar.
“Slressesin Shells” by Flugge.
“Design and Construction of Shells” by Ramaswamy, G.S.
Chandrashekhara, K., Theory of Plates, Universities Press, 2001.
Chandrashekhara, K., Analysis of thin concrete shells, New Age Intl, 1998.
Timshenko, S.P., and WoinowskyKrieger, S., Theory of Plates and Shells, McGraw Hill, 1959.
Ugural, A.C., Stresses in Plates and Shells, John Wiley and Son, 1967.
STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY
UNITI
Concepts of Structural Safety: General, Design methods. Basic Statistics: Introduction, Data reduction, Histograms, Sample correlation. Probability Theory: Introduction, Random events, Random variables, Functions of random variables, Moments and expectation, Common probability distribution, Extremal distribution.
UNITII
Resistance Distributions and Parameters: Introduction, Statistics of properties of concrete, Statistics of properties of steel, Statistics of strength of bricks and mortar, Dimensional variations, Characterization of variables, Allowable stresses based on specified reliability. Probabilistic Analysis of Loads: Gravity loads, Wind load.
UNITIII
Basic Structural Reliability: Introduction, Computation of structural reliability. Monte Carlo Study of Structural Safety: General, Monte Carlo method, Applications. Level 2 Reliability Methods: Introduction, Basic variables and failure surface, Firstorder secondmoment methods (FOSM).
UNITIV
Reliability Based Design: Introduction, Determination of partial safety factors, Safety checking formats, Development of reliability based design criteria, optimal safety factors, Summary of results of study for Indian standard – RCC design.
UNITV
Reliability of Structural Systems: Preliminary concepts as applied to simple structures.
References:
1.“Structural Reliability Analysis and Design” by Ranganatham, R.
2.“Structural Reliability” by Melchers, R.E.
ADVANCED CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY
UNITI
Materials Cement, Aggregates, mixing water soundness of aggregate Fresh and hardened concrete: Admixtures types of admixtures purposes of using admixtures chemical composition effect of admixtures on fresh and hardened concretes Natural admixtures. Non destructive evaluation: Importance Concrete behavior under corrosion, disintegrated mechanisms moisture effects and thermal effects – Visual investigation Acoustical emission methods Corrosion activity measurement chloride content – Depth of carbonation Impact echo methods Ultrasound pulse velocity methods Pull out tests
UNITII
Repair and rehabilitation of structural elements: Analysis, strategy and design Material requirement Material selection Surface preparation Reinforcing steel cleaning, repair and protection Bonding repair materials to existing concrete placement methods
UNITIII
Strengthening and stabilization Techniques design considerations Beam shear capacity strengthening Shear Transfer strengthening stress reduction techniques Column strengtheningflexural strengthening Connection stabilization and strengthening Crack stabilization
UNITIV
Fiberreinforced concrete Properties of constituent materials Mix proportions, mixing and casting methodsMechanical properties of fiber reinforced concrete applications of fibre reinforced concretes. Light weight concrete Introduction properties of light weight concrete No fines concrete design of light weight concrete
UNITV
Fly ash concrete Introduction classification of flyash properties and reaction mechanism of flyash Properties of flyash concrete in fresh state and hardened state Durability of flyash concretes. High performance concretes Introduction Development of high performance concretes Materials of high performance concretes Properties of high performance concretes.
REFERENCE:
Concrete technology Neville & Brooks
Special Structural concrete Rafat Siddique
Concrete repair and maintenance illustrated Peter H Emmons
GROUND IMPROVEMENT TECHNIQUES
UNITI:
Introduction to Ground Modification: Need and objectives of Ground Improvement, Classification of Ground Modification Techniques – suitability and feasibility, Emerging Trends in ground improvement.
UNITII:
Mechanical and Hydraulics Modifications: Methods of compaction, Shallow compaction, Deep compaction techniques – Vibro floatation, Blasting, Dynamic consolidation, precompression and compaction piles, Field compaction control. Hydraulic Modification  Methods of dewatering – open sumps and ditches, Wellpoint system, Electroosmosis, Vacuum dewatering wells; preloading without and with sand drains, strip drains and rope drains.
UNITIII:
Physical and Chemical modification: Stabilisation with admixtures like cement, lime, calcium chloride, fly ash and bitumen. Grouting: Categories of grouting, Art of grouting, Grout materials, Grouting techniques and control.
UNITIV:
Reinforced Earth Technology and Soil Confinement Systems: Concept of soil reinforcement, Reinforcing materials, Backfill criteria, Art of reinforced earth technology, Design and construction of reinforced earth structures. Soil Confinement
Systems  Concept of confinement, Gabbion walls, Crib walls, Sand bags, Evergreen systems and fabric formwork.
UNITV:
Miscellaneous Techniques: Design, Construction and applications of stone columns, lime columns and Cofferdams.
REFERENCES:
Manfred R. Hansmann  Engineering principles of ground modification  Mc. Graw Hill pub. Co., New York.
Robert M. Koerner  Construction and Geotechnical methods in Foundation Engineering – Mc.GrawHill Pub. Co., New York.
Winterkorn and Fang  Foundation Engineering Hand Book – Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York.
Aris C. Stamatopoulos & Panaghiotis C. Kotzios – Soil Improvement by Preloading –John Wiley & Sons Inc. Canada.
P. Purushothama Rao – Ground Improvement Techniques – Laxmi Publications (P) Limited.
Construction and Geotechnical Methods in Foundation Engineering By R.M. Koerner, McGraw – Hill Book Co.
Current Practices in Geotechnical Engineering Vol.1, Alam Singh and Joshi, International Book Traders, Delhi, & GeoEnviron Academia.
Foundation Analysis and Design (1V Ed.) By J.E. Bowles, McGraw – Hill Book Co.,
Ground Improvement Techniques by P. Purushotham Raj, Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd., New Delhi.
Ground Improvement – Edited by M.P. Moseley, Blackie Academic & Professional.
Soil Mechanics for Road Engineers, H.M.S.O, Londan.
Ground Improvement Techniques by Bergado et al.
ADVANCED SOIL MECHANICS
UNITI
Principles of Elasticity and Plasticity Concept of stress and strain – Principal stresses – Stress – strain relationships – Plane stress and plane strain – Mohr’s diagram – Yield criteria – Theories of failure – Mohr – Coulomb failure condition.
UNITII
Clay Mineralogy Nature of soils – atomic bonds  Clay mineral structure – clay water relation – electrical effects – clay mineral identification – Soil fabric and structure Water flow in Soils Flow equation – Darcy’s Law – General equation – mathematical analysis – solution by sketching – electrical analogy – numerical solution
UNITIII
Transient Flow Effective stress  change in degree of saturation – change in void ratio – compressibility of pore water – compressibility of soil solids – rate of storage equation – transient flow condition – one dimensional consolidation – mathematical analysis – approximate numerical analysis.
UNITIV
Consolidation: Mechanism of consolidation – Primary consolidation – Stress history – Preconsolidation pressure – Terzaghi’s onedimensional consolidation theory and equation – Solution by Fourier series and finite difference methods – Determination of coefficient of consolidation including Scott’s method – U versus T relationship for deferent forms of initial excess pore water pressure distribution – Degree of consolidation under time – dependent loading – secondary consolidation.
UNITV
Shear strength Principle of effective stress – Measurement of strength parameter – Strength tests based on drainage conditions – Skempton’s pore pressure coefficients – Stress paths – Hvorslev’ spacing parameters – Shear strength of cohesionless sands – Strength and deformation behavior – Dilatancy – Critical. Void ratio Liquefaction – Shear strength of saturated cohesive soils – Triaxial testing – Normally and over consolidated clays – Partially saturated clays – Stress – state variables – Measurement of pore water and pore – air pressure – Axis translation technique.
REFERENCES:
“Foundations of theoretical soil mechanics” by M.E. Harr., McGraw Hill Co.
“Fundamentals of soil behaviour “ by J.K. Mitchell., John Wiley & Sons.
“ Advanced soil mechanics” by Braja M. Das., Mc Graw Hill Co.,
“Introduction to Geotechnical engineering” by Holtz and Kovacs., Prentice Hall.
“Elements of soil mechanics” by G.N. Smith., B.S.P. Professional Books, Oxford,London
EARTH & ROCKFILL DAMS AND SLOPE STABILITY
UnitI
Earth and Rock fill Dams: General features, Selection of site; Merits and demerits of the earth and rock fill dams, Classification of earth dams, Materials of construction and requirements, Causes of failure, Safe design criteria. Instrumentation in earth dams: Pore pressure measurements, Settlement gauges, Inclinometers, Stress measurements, Seismic measurements.
UNITII
Failures, Damages and Protection of Earth Dams: Nature and importance of failure, Piping through embankment and foundations, Methods of seepage control through embankments and foundations, Design Criteria for filters, Treatment of upstream and downstream of slopes, Drainage control, Filter design.
UNITIII
Slope Stability Analysis: Types of Failure: Failure surfaces  Planar surfaces, Circular surfaces, Noncircular surfaces, Limit equilibrium methods, Total stress analysis versus effective Stress analysis, Use of Bishop's pore pressure parameters, Short term and Long term stability in slopes.
UNITIV
Methods of Slope Stability: Taylor Charts, Method of Slices, Effect of Tension Cracks, Vertical Cuts. Bishop's Analysis, Bishop and Morgenstern Analysis, Noncircular Failure Surfaces: Morgenstern and Price Analysis, Janbu Analysis, Spencer Analysis, Sliding Block Analysis, Seismic stability, Stabilization of slopes: Drainage measures, Soil reinforcement (geosynthetics/soil nailing/micro piles etc), soil treatment (cement/lime/thermal treatment), surface protection (vegetation/erosion control mats/shotcrete).
UNITV
Rockfill Dams: Requirements of compacted rockfill, Shear strength of rockfill, Rockfill mixtures, Rockfill embankments, Earthcore Rockfill dams, Stability, Upstream & Downstream slopes.
REFERENCES:
Sherard – Earth and Earth Rock Dams.
Sowers, G. F. and Salley, H. I. – Earth and Rockfill Dams
Bharat Singh and Sharma, H. D. – Earth and Rockfill Dams.
Abramson, L. W., Lee, T. S. and Sharma, S.  Slope Stability and Stabilisation methods – John Wiley & sons.
Bromhead, E. N. (1992). The Stability of Slopes, Blackie academic and professional, London.
Christian, Earth & Rockfill Dams – Principles of Design and Construction, Kutzner Published Oxford and IBH.
Ortiago, J. A. R. and Sayao, A. S. F. J.  Handbook of Slope Stabilisation, 2004
PAVEMENT ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
UNITI
1. Pavement Types, Wheel Loads and Design Factors
Definition of Pavement Types, Comparison of Highway pavements, Wheel Loads, Tyre
pressure, Contact pressure, Design Factors: Traffic and Loading, Environment, Materials,
Failure criteria, Reliability.
UNITII
Stresses in PavementsLayered System Concepts: One Layer System: Boussinesq Theory. Two Layer Theory: Burmister’s Theory. Three Layer System. Stresses in Rigid Pavements. Relative Stiffness of Slabs, Modulus of Subgrade Reaction, Stresses due to Warping, Stresses due to Friction, Stresses due to Load, IRC Recommendations.
UNITIII
Pavement Design IRC Method of Flexible Pavement Design, AASHTO Method of Flexible Pavement Design, IRC Method for Rigid Pavements, use of Geosynthatics in pavements.
UNITIV
Pavement Inventories Serviceability Concepts, Visual Rating, Pavement Serviceability Index, Roughness Measurements, Measurement of Distress Modes Cracking, Rutting, Rebound Deflection using Benkleman Beam Deflection Method, Load Man Concept, Skid Resistance Measurement.
UNITV
Pavement Evaluation Functional Pavement Performance Evaluation: AASHTO Method, Psycho Physical and Psycho Metric Scaling Techniques, Deduct Value Method. Structural Conditional Evaluation Technique: Benkelman Beam Deflection Method, Pavement Distress Rating Technique. Design of Overlays by Benkelmen Beam Deflection Methods as per IRC – 81  1997 – pavements on problematic soils.
REFERENCES:
Yoder and Witzorack, “Principles of Pavement Design”, John Willey and Sons.
Yang, H. Huang, “Pavement Analysis and Design”, Prentice Hall Publication, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersy.
Sargious, M.A. Pavements and Surfacings for Highways and Airports – Applied science Publishers limited
Ralps Hass and Hudson, W.R. “ Pavement Management System” McGraw Hill Book Company.
IRC codes of practice.
EXPANSIVE SOILS
UnitI
Origin and occurrence of expansive soilsproblems associated with expansive claysidentification and classification based on mineralogical composition. XRay diffraction, differential thermal analysis and electron microscopyidentification by index properties .
UnitII
Claywater system – Ion distribution in clay –water systemsdiffuse double layerGouy Chapman theorycation exchange. Mechanisms of swellingosmotic pressure conceptImportance of mineralogical details in swellingsoil suctionmeasurement in laboratory and field
UnitIII
Swell potentialswelling pressurefactors affectingdirect measurement from laboratory testingstresses in an insitu soil massfactors affecting heavemethods of heave prediction
UnitIV:
Shear strength of expansive claysKatti’s concept of bilinear stress state variablesFredlund’s three dimensional approach to shear strength and swelling behaviour of expansive clays
UnitV
Foundation practices in expansive clayssand cushionbelled piersunder reamed pilesCNS layer technique. Expansive soil stabilization with limelime soil columns and lime slurry pressure injectionstabilization with admixtures.
REFERENCES:
Foundations on expansive soils – F.H. Chen, Elsevier Publishing Co.
Search for solutions to problems in black cotton soils – R.K. Katti, Indian Goe.Tech.Journal, Volume 1, 1971
Fundamentals of soil behaviour – J.K. Mitchell, John Wiley&Sons
8. Foundation Design and construction by MJ Tmlinson – longman scientific
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
UNITI
Soil Exploration – Importance, Terminology, Planning  Geophysical methods. Borings  Location, spacing and depth, Methods of Boring including Drilling, Stabilization of Boreholes, Boring records. Soil sampling – Methods of sampling Types of Samples and Samplers Cleaning of Bore holes, Preservation, Labeling and Shipment of Samples  Design Considerations of Open Drive Samplers. Field tests  The Standard Penetration Test – its limitations and Corrections – Cone Penetration Test – Field Vane Shear Test – Bore–Hole Shear Test – Dilatometer Test – Pressure Meter test – Preparation of Soil Report.
UNITII
Shallow Foundations – Types and choice of type. Design considerations of including location and depth, Bearing capacity – General bearing capacity equation, Meyerhof’s Hnnsen’s and Vesic’s bearing capacity factors; Bearing capacity of stratified; soils; Bearing capacity based on penetration resistance, safe bearing capacity and allowable bearing pressure.
UNITIII
Settlement Analysis – Elastic settlement in granular soils – Meyerhof’s De beer and Marten’s and schemertmann’s equationsl; Elastic settlements of clays; Skempton and Bjerrum’s psuedo – Three dimensional approach for consolidation settlement, settlement from insitu tests. Tolerable settlements. Proportioning of shallow foundations isolated and combined footings and mats, Design procedure for mats; floating foundation, fundamentals of beam on Elastic foundations.
UNITIV
Pile foundations – Classification methods – Factors influencing their choice – Load carrying Capacity of piles by static pile formulae in clays and granular soils  ab and l  methods for piles in clays; Meyerhof’s, Vesic’s equations and Coyle and Castello correlations for piles in sands; ( Elastic settlement of piles) Pull out resistance of piles – Load carrying capacity using Dynamic pile formula – Pile load tests – cyclic pile load tests.
UNITIV
Laterally loaded vertical piles Modulus of sub – grade reaction – Pile in granular sols and cohesive soils subjected t lateral loading, Matlock & Reese analysis, Davisson & Gill analysis, Broms’ Analysis. Under – reamed pile foundations – construction techniques – design specifications – pile carrying capacity in compression and uplift of single and multi – under reamed piles in clays and sands. Negative skin friction in piles – typical field situations – Estimation of downdrag in single piles and pile groups – methods of minimizing downdrag
.
UNITV
Drilled pier and Caisson Foundations – Types of Drilled piers – load carrying capacity of piers in clays and sands, uplift capacity of piers, caissons – Types – Pneumatic Caisson – Well Foundations – Design of components – Lateral stability of well foundations – Terzaghi’s analysis.
REFERENCES
1. Earth manual – Oxbord and IBH publishing company
2. Soil Mechanics in Engineeirng Practice by Terzagi and Peck
3. Foundation Design by Wayne C. Teng, John Wiley & co.,
4. Foundation Analysis and Desing by F.E. Bowles Mc. Graw Hill publishing Co.,
5. Analysis and Design of sub structures b. Swami saran,
6. Principles Foundation Engineering by Braja M. Das.
7. Design Aids in Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineeirng by Shanbaga, R. Kaniraj
8. Foundation Design and construction by MJ Tmlinson – longman scientific
NUMERICAL METHODS IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
UNITI
Introduction: Categories of Problems in Geotechnical Engineering, Finite Difference Method, Boundary Corrections for Grids. Accuracy, Convergence and Stability. Idealization of soil behaviour; Linear, Bilinear and multilinear, Hyperbolic, Spline function, Ramberg – Osgood’s Model, Polynomials, Higher order elastic models, perfect plasticity, frictional. Elastic models of soil behaviour – The winkler – Filenenkoboroditch – Pasternak – Ressiener models.
UNITII
Seepage: Finite Difference Solution to Laplace equation for Homogeneous and Layered Soils. Consolidation: Finite Difference Solution for One Dimensional, Two and three dimensional consolidations. Multi layered systems. Consolidation of Ground for Construction Load and Static Load.
UNITII
Shallow Foundations: Beams on Elastic foundations, solution by Finite Difference and – Finite Element Method (Direct Approach) Limit analysis, Lower Bound and Upper bound theories Method of Finite difference solution of Raft foundations.
UNITIII
Pile Foundation: Pile Stresses – Static loading – Finite Element Method Solution (Direct approach ) of the pile static pile capacity wave equation. Pile Group: Finite Element Method (Direct Approach) method of Analysis for pile groups. Lateral Piles: Lateral piles by Finite Element Method – Finite Difference method – Soil modulus and Nonlinearity – Pile length or partial embedment case – pile head fixity.
UNITIV
Sheet pile wall: Solution to sheet pile wall by Finite Element Method and FDM – Cohesion & Cohesion loss soils – Free – Fixed Anchored sheet pile walls.
UNITV
Mechanical Vibrations – Finite Difference Solution for Free and Forced, Undamped and damped single and two degree of freedom systems.
REFERENCE:
1. Numerical methods in Geotechnical Engineering by C.S. Desai and J.T. Christian McGraw Hill publications.
2. Analytical and computer methods in foundation engineering, JE Bowles, McGraw Hill publications.
3. Foundation analysis and design, JE Bowles, McGraw Hill publications
4. Foundation analysis by RF Scott, Printice Hall
5. Hytenyi, Beams on Elastic Foundations – university of Michigan Press.
6. Elastic Analysis of Soil – Foundation Interaction, APS Selvadurai – Elsevier
7. Pile Foundation Analalysis & Design by Poulos and Davis.
EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES
UNITI
Earth pressures – Different types and their coefficients Classical Theories of Earth pressure – Rankine’s and Coulomb’s Theories for Active and Passive earth pressure Computation of Lateral Earth Pressure in Homogeneous and Layered soils Graphical solutions for Coulomb’s Theory in active and passive conditions.
UNITII
Retaining walls – different types  Type of Failures of Retaining Walls – Stability requirements – Drainage behind Retaining walls – Provision of Joints – Relief Shells.
UNITIII
Braced cuts – Lateral Pressure in Braced cuts – Design of Various Components of a Braced cut – Stability of Braced cuts – Bottom Heave in cuts. Sheet Pile Structures – Types of Sheet piles – Cantilever sheet piles in sands and clays – Anchored sheet piles – Free earth and Fixed earth support methods – Row’s moment reduction method – Location of anchors, Forces in anchors.
UNITIV
Soil reinforcement – Reinforced earth  Different components – their functions – Mechanics of reinforced earth – Failure modesFailure theories – Design of Embakments on problematic soils.
UNITV
Cofferdams – types, suitability, merits and demerits – Design of single – wall cofferdams and their stability aspects – TVA method and Cummins’ methods.
REFERENCES
Principles of Foundation Engineering by Braja M. Das.
Foundation analysis and design – Bowles, JE – McGraw Hill
Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice – Terzaghi, K and Rolph, B. peck 2nd Edn. – John Wiley & Co.,
Analysis and Design of Foundations and Retaining Structures, Prakash, S – Saritha Prakashan, Mearut
COMPUTATIONAL AND STATISTICAL METHODS
Unit I
Numerical Solution of Ordinary: Differential Equations – Solution by Taylor’s Series – Euler’s Method Runge Kutta Methods – Simultaneous and Higher Order Equations – Boundary Value Problems – Applications.
Unit II
Partial differential equations: Variable Separable Method – Wave, Heat and Laplace Equation (Two dimensions only)
Unit III
Regression Analysis – Simple Linear Regression, Evaluation of Regression – Confidence Intervals and Tests of Hypotheses – Multiple Linear Regression – Correlation and Regression Analysis.
Unit IV
Finite Difference Method : Construction of finite difference approximations – Taylor series, Forward, Backward and central difference approximations, Finite difference approximations of boundary value and initial value problems, One dimensional and two dimensional problems, Explicit, Implicit, and Crank – Nicolson Schemes, Convergence and stability, Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) method for two space dimensions, simple examples.
Unit V
Finite Element Method: General Principles, types of elements, interpolation functions, Development of basis functions for onedimensional and two dimensional elements, Linear interpolation, local coordinate system, variational formulation, Galerkin formulation, development of element matrices. Posting into Global locations, treatment of initial and boundary conditions, solution of Linear algebraic equations, simple examples.
TEXT BOOKS:
Advanced Engineering Mathematics by B.S. Grewal.
Engineering Mathematics by Jaggi & Mathur
Calculus by Shantinarayan
GLEN. E. MYERS – Analytical Methods in Conduction Heat Transfer McGraw Hill, New York (1977)
REMSON. I. G.M. HORNBERGER AND F.J. MOLIZ – Numerical Methods inSubsurface Hydrology.
PINDER G.F. and GRAY – Finite Element Simulation in Sub Surface Hydrology, Academic Press, New York
GROUND WATER EXPLORATION AND WATERSHED MANAGEMENT
UNIT I
Ground Water Exploration,: Internal Constitution of the earth. Basic concepts of geologic structures governing occurrence and movement of Ground water, Ground Water in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, Hydrogeological methods of exploration.
UNIT II
Geophysical methods: Electrical methods, Expression for apparent resistivity in four electrode arrangements viz. – Wonner, Schlumberger, arrays. Field surveys interpretation techniques in sounding and profiling for ground water investigation. Seismic Refraction method – Principle and propagation of refracted energy in two and three media earth, Field procedure and interpretation techniques. Magnetic and Electromagnetic methods, principle and field practices VLF technique and its interpretation.
UNIT III
Water Well Technology: Wells and their constructions, open wells and cavity wells, types and construction of Tube wells in alluvial soils and in hard rock areas. Methods of drilling tube wells: Hydraulic rotary method and reverse rotary method, DTH method. Well logging Techniques: Electrical – Long normal short normal SP and radioactive loggings. Completion of wells and development of wells: Various methods, design of strainer tube wells, pumping arrangements.
UNIT IV
Watershed Management I : Objectives of Planning watershed projects guidelines for project preparation, watershed delineation, codification and determination of priority, critical areas. Site selection, bench marks, resources survey, hydrological, soil, vegetative and land use surveys, socioeconomic surveys and soil conservation works.
UNIT V
Watershed Management II :Peoples participation and constraints, Participatory Rural Appraisal in Watershed Programme, Community Mobilization & Participatory Management, Peoples Institutions, Capacity Building.
TEXT BOOKS:
Ground Water Hydrology by Raghunath
Principles and Applications of Ground Water geophysics by Murali, Sabnavis and
N.S. Patangay.
Applied Geophysics by Telford, Geldard, Keys.
Hydrology and water resources Engineering by S.K. Garg.
Formation Evaluation by E.L. Lynch.
A Text book of geology by P.K. Mukerjee
Hydrogeology by Davis and Dewiest
Hydrogeology by K. R. Karanth
Integrated Watershed Management by Rajesh Rajora – Rawat Publications
Soil and Water Conservation by Seshagiri Rao – BS Publications Watershed
Management in India by JVS Murthy Wiley Eastern, Limited Publishers.
FAO Watershed Management Field Manuals, FAO Conservation Guide, UNO
Soil and Water Conservation Research in India by V.V.Dhruva Narayana published by ICAR, New Delhi
HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES
Unit I
Classification of dams, Selection of type of dam, Site investigations. Gravity dams – Forces acting, Causes of failures and design criteria – elementary profile and practical profile of a gravity dam, limiting height of a dam,Single and multiple step design. Method of zoning stability analysis.
Unit II
Earth & Rockfill dams : Types and general Principles of design, Methods of control of seepage through embankment and through foundation, Stability of earth dam slopes under different conditions – slip circle analysis. Horizontal shear, sudden drawdown condition, factors of safety. Rockfill dams – Types & Suitabilities.
Unit III
Arch and Buttress dams : Classification of arch dams, Cylinder theories, Principles of elastic theory and Elementary Principles of trial load analysis. Buttress dams – Types and relative merits of dams. Buttress Spacing, unit column design.
Unit IV
Spillways: Types, design principles of Ogee spillways, types of spillway crest gates. Energy dissipation below spillwaysstilling basin and its aappurtenances.
Unit V
Cross Drainage works: Types, selection, design principles of aqueduct, siphon aqueduct and super passage.
TEXT BOOKS
Irrigation and Water Power Engineering by B.C.Punmia and Lal
Irrigation & Hydraulic Structures by S.K.Garg
Engineering of Dams by Creager, Justin and Hinds
IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT
Unit I
Irrigation Development in India – Planning of Irrigation Projects, Command Area Development Programmes
Unit II
Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil, Soil Profile, Soil Aeration, Classification of Irrigable Soils, Soil Survey, Soil Management.
Unit III
SoilPlant – Water Relationships, Capillary and Non Capillary Pores, Water Relation of Soils, Infiltration, Hydraulic Conductivity, Water Movement through Soils, Soil Water Potential, Soil Moisture Constant, Plant Water Relations, Rooting Characteristics, Evaporation and Evapotranspiration Measurements, Different Methods of Estimating Evapotranspiration, , Water Requirements of Crops, Irrigation Scheduling.
Unit IV
Irrigation water application methods: Basin, border, check, furrow, and sub irrigation methods, and their relative merits. Sprinkler and drip Irrigation systems, basic components and design.
Unit V
Land Grading and Field Layout, Cropping Patterns, Fertilizers, Onfarm Developments, Diagnostic Analysis of Irrigation System, Water Application Methods, Rotational Water Distribution, Micro Irrigation, Water Logging and Salt Problems, Reclamation and Management of Salt Affected Soils, Drainage, Participatory Irrigation Management.
TEXT BOOKS:
Murthy, V.V.N. (1999) , “Land and Water Management Engineering”, Kalyani Publishers, Ludiana.
Scwabe G.O., Fangmeir, D.D. and Elliot W.J. (1996), “Soil and Water Management Systems”, John Wiley and Sons, N. York.
Michael , B.A.M. (1990), “Irrigation”, Vikas publishing House Pvt. Ltd. N Delhi.
Withers and Vipond, S. (1980), “Irrigation – Theory and Practice”, Cornell University Press
Hutchinson (1973), “Irrigation, Drainage and Salinity”, FAO/UNESCO Publications, Rome
Asawa,G.L(1996), “Irrigation Engineering”, New Age International Pub. Co.N Delhi.
Hansen, V.E., Israelson O.S. and Stringham G.C. (1979) “Irrigation Principles and Practice”, John Wiley and Sons, N York
Suresh R.L., (1999), “Soil and Water Conservation Engineering”, Standard Publishing Co. Delhi.
STOCHASTIC HYDROLOGY
UNIT I
Classification and Presentation of Data  Basic Concepts of Probability, Probability Axioms, Analysis and Treatment of Data, Population and Samples, Measures of Central Tendency, Measures of Dispersion, Measures of Symmetry, Measures of Peakedness.
UNIT II
Probability Distributions: Parameter Estimation, Methods of Moments, Methods of Maximum Likelihood, Weighted Moments and Least Square Method, Conditional Probability, Marginal Probability, Joint Probability Distributions.
UNIT III
Hydrologic Time Series Analysis  Independent and AutoCorrelated Data, Structure of Hydrologic Time Series, Trend, Jump and Seasonality, Stationarity and Ergodicity, AutoCovariance and AutoCorrelation Function, Correlogaram Analysis, Spectral Analysis, Analysis of MultiVariant Hydrologic Series.
UNIT IV
Modelling of Hydrologic Time Series I  Data Generation Techniques, Linear Stochastic Models, AutoRegressive, Moving Average, ARMA Models,
UNIT V
Modelling of Hydrologic Time Series II Modelling of NonStationary and Seasonal Series, ThomasFiering Model, ARIMA Models, Periodic Models, MultiSite Modelling.
TEXT BOOKS:
Haan C.T, Statistical Methods in Hydrology, EastWest Press, New Delhi.
McCueen R.H. and Snyder, W.M., Hydrological Modelling  Statistical Methods and Applications, Prentice Hall International, New York
Kottegoda, Stochastic Processes in Hydrology, Prentice Hall International, New Jersey.
Stochastic Hydrology by P. Jayarami Reddy
Stochastic Processes in Hydrology by Yevifievich
URBAN DRAINAGE AND WASTE WATER TREATMENT
UNIT I
Urban Hydrological Cycle, Effects of Urbanization on Catchment Hydrology, Need for Urban Drainage System, Planning Objectives, Interaction of Urban and Surrounding Areas.
Approaches to Urban Drainage, Urban Wastes and Urban Runoff Options for Waste Disposal, Separate and Combined System’s, Open Channels and Closed Conduits, Wastewater and Storm water Reuse, Data Requirements, Master Drainage Plans.
UNIT II
Elements of Drainage System, Conveyance Elements, Appurtenances, Overflow Structures, Runoff Control, Pumping Stations. Design Parameters, Design Period, Catchment, Physical Parameters, Process Parameters, Rainfall, water Quality Parameters, Instrumentation for Data Collection. Hydraulic Design of Conveyance Elements, Sizing of Sewers and Drainage Channels, Design of Appurtenances, Layout of Road Drainage, Layout of Pumping Stations.
UNIT III
Operation and Maintenance of Urban Drainage Systems, Interaction of Urban Drainage and Solid Waste Management, Cleansing of Sewers and Drains, Repairs and Maintenance, Planning.
UNIT IV
Wastewater Treatment Technologies: Sedimentation, sedimentation with Coagulation, Filtration, Activated Sludge Process, trickling Filters. Tertiary Treatment Systems: Nitrogen removal, Phosphorous removal, biological phosphorus removal, advanced biological systems, aerobic ponds, facultative ponds, aerated ponds, anaerobic ponds, chemical oxidation.
UNIT V
Wetlands: Introduction, definition, classification, delineation, Identification methods, Importance of wetlands, Human impacts, wetland protection, mitigation. Wetland Management: Designed ecosystem, water recycling, soil filters, Constructed wetlands
TEXT BOOKS:
Industrial Wastewater Treatment, M.N. Rao, A.K. Dutta Oxford and IBH Publishing House, 1987.
Waste Water Treatment and Disposal by Metcalf Eddy & Co., Mc. Graw Hill Co., 1993
Water and wastewater Treatment by Hammer and Hammer: PrenticeHall 1998
Hall, M.J. (1984), “Urban Hydrology “, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers.
Geiger, W.F., Marsalek, J. Zudima and Rawls, G. J. (1987 “Manual on Drainage in Urban Areas”, 2 Volumes, UNESCO, Paris.
Geiger, W.F. and Jayakumar, K.V. (Ed.) (1996) “Lecture Notes of the V
International Course on Urban Drainage in Developing Countries”, Regional Engineering College, Warangal
WATER RESOURCES SYSTEMS PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT
Unit I
Introduction : General Principles of Systems Analysis to Problems in Water Resources Engineering, Objectives of Water Resources Planning and Development, Nature of Water Resources Systems, SocioEconomic Characteristics.
Economic Analysis of Water Resources Systems: Principles of Engineering Economy, Capital, Interest and Interest Rates, Time Value of Money, Depreciation, Benefit Cost Evaluation, Discounting Techniques, Economic and Financial Evaluation, SocioEconomic Analysis.
Unit II
Methods of Systems Analysis: Linear Programming Models, Simplex Method, Sensitivity Analysis, Dual Programming, Dynamic Programming Models, Classical Optimization Techniques, NonLinear Programming, Gradient Techniques, Genetic Algorithm, Stochastic Programming, Simulation, Search Techniques, Multi Objective Optimization.
Unit III
Water Quantity Management: Surface Water Storage Requirements, Storage Capacity and Yield, Reservoir Design, Water Allocations for Water Supply, Irrigation, Hydropower and Flood Control, Reservoir Operations, Planning of an Irrigation System, Irrigation Scheduling, Groundwater Management, Conjunctive Use of Surface and Subsurface Water Resources, Design of Water Conveyance and Distribution Systems.
Unit IV
Water Quality Management: Water Quality Objectives and Standards, Water Quality control Models, Flow Augmentation, Wastewater Transport Systems, River Water Quality Models and Lake Quality Models.
Unit V
Legal Aspects of Water & Environment Systems: Principles of Law Applied to Water Rights and Water Allocation, Water Laws, Environmental Protection Law, Environmental Constraints on Water Resources Development.
TEXT BOOKS:
Loucks, D.P., Stedinger, J.R. and Haith, D.A.(1982) “Water Resources Systems Planning and Analysis”, Prentice Hall Inc. N York
Chaturvedi, M.C. (1987), “Water Resources Systems Planning and Manag;ement”, Tata McGraw Hill Pub. Co., N Delhi
Hall. W.A. and Dracup, J.A. (1975), “Water Resources Systems”, Tata Mc Graw Hill Pub. N Delhi
James, L.D. and Lee (1975) , “Economics of Water Resources Planning”, M c Graw Hill Inc. N. York
Biswas, A.K. (1976) “Systems Approach to Water Mana;gement”, Mc Graw Hill Inc. N York
Major, D.C. and Lenton, R.L., (1979), “Applied Water Resources System Planning”, PrenticeHall Inc., N. Jersey
Taha H A (1996), “Operations Research “, Prentice Hall of India, N Delhi.
TRAFFIC ENGINEERING
UNITI
Traffic Characteristics Measurement And Analysis: Basic traffic Characteristics  Speed, Volume and Concentration. Relationship between Flow, Speed and Concentration. Traffic Measurement and Analysis  Volume Studies  Objectives, Methods; Speed studies – Objectives, Definition of Spot Speed, time mean speed and space mean speed; Methods of conducting speed studies; Presentation of speed study data; Head ways and Gaps; Critical Gap; Gap acceptance studies.
UNITII
Highway Capacity And Level Of Service: Basic definitions related to capacity; Level of service concept; Factors affecting capacity and level of service; Computation of capacity and level of service for two lane highways, Multilane highways and freeways.
UNITIII
Parking Analysis And Traffic Safety : Types of parking facilities – Onstreet parking and Offstreet Parking facilities; Parking studies and analysis Parking Inventory Study, Parking Usage Study By Patrolling, Questionnaire Survey, Cordon Surveys; Evaluation of parking parameters; Parking accumulation, Parking Load, Parking Turnover, Parking Index, Parking Volume. Traffic Safety Accident studies and analysis; Causes of accidents  The Road, The vehicle, The road user and the Environment; Engineering, Enforcement and Education measures for the prevention of accidents.
UNITIV
Traffic Control, Regulation Signal Coordination: Traffic Signals –Types of Signals; Principles of Phasing; Timing Diagram; Design of Isolated Traffic Signal by Webster method, Warrants for signalization. Signal Coordination  Signal Coordination methods, Simultaneous, Alternate, Simple progression and Flexible progression Systems.
UNITV
Traffic And Environment: Detrimental effects of Traffic on Environment , Air pollution; Noise Pollution; Measures to curtail environmental degradation due to traffic.
REFERENCES:
1. Traffic Engineering and Transportation Planning – L.R. Kadiyali, Khanna Publishers.
2. Traffic Engineering  Theory & Practice  Louis J.Pignataro, Prentice Hall Publication.
3. Principles of Highways Engineering and Traffic Analysis  Fred Mannering & Walter
Kilareski, John Wiley & Sons Publication.
4. Transportation Engineering  An Introduction  C.Jotin Khisty, Prentice Hall Publication
5. Fundamentals of Transportation Engineering  C.S.Papacostas, Prentice Hall India.
6. I.T.E. Traffic Engineering Hand Book.
URBAN TRANSPORTATION PLANNING
UNITI: Urban Transportation Problem Travel Demand: Urban Issues, Travel Characteristics, Evolution of Planning Process, Supply and Demand – Systems approach. Travel Demand: Trends, Overall Planning process, Long term Vs Short term planning, Demand Function, Independent Variables, Travel Attributes, Assumptions in Demand Estimation, Sequential, and Simultaneous Approaches, Aggregate and Disaggregate Techniques.
UNITII: Data Collection And Inventories: Collection of data – Organisation of surveys and Analysis, Study Area, Zoning, Types and Sources of Data, Road Side Interviews, Home Interview Surveys, Commercial Vehicle Surveys, Sampling Techniques, Expansion Factors, Accuracy Checks, Use of Secondary Sources, Economic data – Income – Population – Employment – Vehicle Owner Ship.
UNITIII: Four Stage Demand Forecasting : UTPS Approach, Trip Generation Analysis: Zonal Models, Category Analysis, Household Models, Trip Attraction models, Commercial Trip Rates. Trip Distribution: Growth Factor Methods, Gravity Models, Opportunity Models, Time Function Iteration Models.
UNITIV: Mode Choice and Traffic Assignment : Mode Choice Behaviour, Competing Modes, Mode Split Curves, Models and Probabilistic Approaches. Traffic Assignment: Basic Elements of Transport Networks, Coding, Route Properties, Path Building Criteria, Skimming Tree, AllorNothing Assignment, Capacity Restraint Techniques, Reallocation of Assigned Volumes, Equilibrium Assignment, Diversion Curves.
UNITV: Plan Preparation And Evaluation: Travel Forecasts to Evaluate Alternative Improvements, Impacts of New Development on Transportation Facilities. Master plans, Selection of Corridor, Corridor Identification, Corridor deficiency Analysis.
REFERENCES:
Introduction to Transportation Planning – M.J.Bruton; Hutchinson of London Ltd.
Introduction to Urban System Planning  B.G.Hutchinson; Mc Graw Hill.
Traffic Engineering and Transport Planning  Kadiyali L.R., Khanna Publishers.
Lecture notes on UTP  Prof. S. Raghavachari , R.E.C.Warangal.
INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTION SYSTEMS
UNITI
FUNDAMENTALS OF ITS: Definition of ITS s, The historical context of ITS from both public policy and market economic perspectives, Types of ITS; Historical Background, Benefits of ITS.
UNITII
SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES AND DATA REQUIREMENTS OF ITS: Importance of telecommunications in the ITS system, Information Management, Traffic Management Centres (TMC). Application of sensors to Traffic management; Traffic flow sensor technologies; Transponders and Communication systems; Data fusion at traffic management centres; Sensor plan and specification requirements; Elements of Vehicle Location and Route Navigation and Guidance concepts; ITS Data collection techniques – Detectors, Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL), Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI), GIS, video data collection.
UNITIII
ITS functional areas: Advanced Traffic Management systems (ATMS), Advanced Traveler Information systems (ATIS), Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO), Advanced Vehicle Control systems (AVCS), Advanced Public Transportation systems (APTS), Advanced Rural Transportation systems (ARTS). ITS User Needs and Services – Travel and Traffic management, Public Transportation Management, Electronic Payment, Commercial Vehicle Operations, Emergency Management, Advanced Vehicle safety systems, Information Management.
UNITIV
ITS ARCHITECTURE: Regional and Project ITS architecture; Concept of operations; ITS Models and Evaluation Methods; Planning and human factor issues for ITS, Case studies on deployment planning and system design and operation; ITS and safety, ITS and security, ITS as a technology deployment program, research, development and business models, ITS planning
UNITV
ITS applications: Traffic and incident management systems; ITS and sustainable mobility, travel demand management, electronic toll collection, ITS and roadpricing.; Transportation network operations; commercial vehicle operations and intermodal freight; public transportation applications; ITS and regional strategic transportation planning, including regional architectures: ITS and changing transportation institutions Automated Highway Systems Vehicles in Platoons – Integration of Automated Highway Systems. ITS Programs in the World – Overview of ITS implementations in developed countries, ITS in developing countries.
REFERENCES:
Fundamentals of intelligent transportation systems planning By Mashrur A. Chowdhury, Adel Wadid Sadek
Lawrence A. Klein , Sensor technologies and Data requirements of ITS
ITS Hand Book 2000: Recommendations for World Road Association (PIARC) by Kan Paul Chen, John Miles.
Sussman, J. M., Perspective on ITS, Artech House Publishers, 2005.
National ITS Architecture Documentation, US Department of Transportation, 2007
ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY
Unit I
Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry:
Stoichiometry, chemical equilibria, acid base reactions, solubility product, solubility of gases in water, the carbonate system, unsaturated and saturated hydro carbons, radionuclides.
Unit II
Atmospheric and Water Chemistry:
Structure and composition of atmosphere  chemical reactions in the atmosphere  ozone chemistry  CFC’s  Acid rain  photochemical smog  aerosols types production and distribution  Aerosols and Radiation  temperature inversion  green house gases  global warming. Water resources, hydrological cycle, physical and chemical properties of water, complexation in natural and waste water, role of microorganisms – Water pollutants Types – Sources – Heavy metals – Metalloids – Organic Inorganic  Biological and Radioactive – Types of reactions in various water bodies including marine environment  Eutrophication Groundwater – Potable water.
Unit III
Soil Chemistry & Soil Composition:
Organic & Inorganic – soil, physical and chemical properties cation exchange capacity soil pH environmental properties of soils, leaching and erosion – reactions with acids and bases geochemical
reactions that neutralize acidity biological process that neutralize acidity – salt affected soils trace metals in soils.
Unit IV
Toxicological Chemistry:
Introduction to toxicology and toxicants Toxicants  Dose response relationship Evaluation methodsLD50, LC50, impact of Toxic chemicals on Enzymes  Biochemical effects of arsenic, lead,
mercury, carbon monoxide, Nitrogen oxides  sulphur dioxide  ozone and PAN  cyanide  pesticides and Carcinogens.
Unit V
Green Chemistry and Green Environmental Issues:
Principles tools of green chemistry alternative feed stocks starting materials, alternative reagents, alternative solvents, alternative products and alternative catalysis. Introduction ecological and carbon foot prints carbon credits carbon sequestration clean development mechanism (CDM) polluters pay consumerism sustainable mining urban forestry green buildings green building practices approaches to green computing, nanotechnology and environment.
Textbooks:
Environmental chemistry, a global perspective by Gary W. Vanloon & tephen J. Duffy Oxford University press.
Chemistry for environmental engineering and science fifth edition by Clair N. Sawyer, Perry L. Me Carty. Gene F. Parkin, Tata McGraw Hill edition.
Environmental Chemistry, by A. K. de, 4th ed. New age internati9onal (P) Ltd., New Delhi, 2000.
Chemistry and the Environment, Johnson, D. O. Netterville, J. T., Wood, J. C., and James, M., 1973,W.B. Saunders company Philadelphia.
Toxic Chemistry, health and the Environment, Lave, L. B and Upton , A.C. 1987, The Hopkins Press Ltd., London.
Green Chemistry, Rashmi sanghi and Srivastava M. M, Narosa (2006).
Environmental Chemistry by Manhan, 7th ed., CRC press, Bo Co Raton, F. L., 2000.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Unit I
Conceptual Facts of EIA and Baseline Data Acquisition:
Introduction, Definition and Scope of EIA, Objectives in EIA, Basic EIA Principles, Classification of EIA: Strategic EIA (SEIA), Regional EIA, Sectoral EIA, Project Level EIA and Life Cycle Assessment, Project Cycle, Grouping of Environmental Impacts: Direct Impacts, Indirect Impacts, Cumulative Impacts and Induced Impacts. Significance of Impacts: Criteria/Methodology to determine the Significance of the Identified Impacts. Environmental Inventory, Data Products and Sources: thematic data, topographical data, collateral data and field data. Environmental Baseline Monitoring (EBM), Preliminary Study to determine impact significance, Environmental Monitoring Network Design, Monitoring Stations, Air and Water Quality, Soil, Socioeconomic and Biological data acquisition. Impact on Environmental Components: Significance and Criteria to determine the significance of the identified Impacts.
Unit II
Planning and Management of Impact Studies and Operational Aspects of EIA:
Conceptual Approach for Environmental Impact Studies, Proposal Development, Interdisciplinary Team Formations, Team Leader Selection and Duties, General Study Management, Fiscal Control.
Screening: Application for Prior Screening for Environmental Clearance, Screening Criteria; Category A Projects, Category B Projects, Criteria for Classification of Category B1 and B2 Projects, Consistency with other Requirements and Siting Guidelines. Scoping: Identification of Appropriate Valued Environmental Components (VEC), Identification of Impacts, Information in Form 1, Structure of a Prefeasibility Report. Public consultation: Appraisal, Decision Making, Postclearance Monitoring Protocol.
Unit III
Methods for Impact Identification:
Background Information, Interaction  Matrix Methodologies: Simple matrices, stepped matrices, development of a simple matrix, other types of matrices, summary observations on matrices, Network Methodologies, Checklist methodologies, simple checklists, descriptive Checklists, summary observations on simple and descriptive Checklists.
Unit IV
Prediction of Impacts (Air, Water, Noise, Soil, Biological and Socioeconomic):
Air Environment: Basic information on air quality, Sources of Pollutants, effects of pollutions, Conceptual approach for addressing air environment impacts, Air quality standards, Impact Prediction, Impact significance. Water Environment: Basic Information on surfaceWater Quantity and Quality, Conceptual Approach for Addressing SurfaceWaterEnvironment Impacts, Identification of SurfaceWater Quantity or Quality Impacts, Procurement of Relevant Surface
Water QuantityQuality Standards, Impact Predictions, Assessment of Impact Significance. Basic Information on Noise, Conceptual Approach for Addressing NoiseEnvironment Impacts, Identification of Noise Impacts, Procurement of Relevant Noise Standards and/or Guidelines, Impact Prediction, Assessment of Impact Significance, Soil Environment: Human Health and Society, Biological Environment: Basic Information on Biological Systems, Conceptual Approach for Addressing Biological Impacts, Identification of Biological Impacts, Description of Existing Biological Environment Conditions, Procurement of Relevant Legislation and Regulations, Impact Prediction, Assessment of Impact Significance.
Unit V
Environmental Management Plan (EMP):
Case Study, identification of Impacts, EMP for Air Environment: Dust Control Plan, Procedural
Changes, Diesel Generator Set Emission Control Measures, Vehicle Emission Controls and Alternatives, Greenbelt Development. EMP for Noise Environment, EMP for Water Environment: Water Source Development, Minimizing Water Consumption, Domestic and Commercial Usage, Horticulture, Storm Water Management. EMP for land Environment: Construction Debris, hazardous Waste, Waste from temporary Labour settlements.
Text Books:
Environmental Impact Assessment by Prof. Y. Anjaneyulu.
Technological guidance manuals of EIA. MoEF.
EIA by Canter
INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT
UNITI
Sources and types of industrial wastewater – Environmental impacts – Regulatory requirements – generation rates – characterization – Toxicity and Bioassay tests. Prevention vs Control of Industrial Pollution– Source reduction techniques – Waste Audit Evaluation of pollution prevention options.
UNITII
Waste minimization  Equalization  Neutralization – Oil separation – Flotation –Precipitation – Heavy metal Removal –adsorption – Aerobic and anaerobic biological treatment – Sequencing batch reactors – High Rate reactors  Chemical oxidation – Ozonation– Photocatalysis – Wet Air Oxidation – Evaporation – Ion Exchange – Membrane
Technologies – Nutrient removal.
UNITIII
Individual and Common Effluent Treatment Plants – Zero effluent discharge systems Wastewater reuse – Disposal of effluent on land – Quantification, characteristics and disposal of Sludge.
UNITIV
Industrial manufacturing process description, wastewater characteristics, source reduction options and waste treatment flow sheet for Textiles – Tanneries – Pulp and paper – metal finishing.
UNITV
Petrochemical Pharmaceuticals – Sugar and Distilleries – Food Processing – fertilizers – Thermal Power Plants and Industrial Estates, ISO 14000:2003 – Waste Audit.
REFERENCES:
1. Eckenfelder, W.W., Industrial Water Pollution Control, McGrawHill, 1999.
2. Arceivala, S.J., Wastewater Treatment for Pollution Control, McGrawHill, 1998.
3. Frank Woodard, Industrial waste treatment Handbook, Butterworth Heinemann, New Delhi, 2001.
M. Tech. (Environmental Engineering)
4. Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli – 620 015
PAPER – II
DESIGN OF MASONRY STRUCTURES
Unit I: Properties of materials of masonry Bricks, mortar, and factors influencing strength of masonry.
Unit II: Properties of masonry,
Unit III : Masonry under axial, flexure and shear,
Unit IV: Theories of failure of masonry
Unit V: Design of unreinforced masonry structures.
REFERENCES:
Hendry, A.W., Structural Masonry, MacMillan Press, 1998.
Duggal, S.K., Earthquake resistant design of structures, Oxford University Press, 2007
Current literature.
STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS
UNIT I:
Theory of vibrations: Introduction  Elements of vibratory system  Degrees of Freedom Continuous System  Lumped mass idealization  Oscillatory motion  Simple Harmonic motion  Vectorial representation of S.H.M.  Free vibrations of single degree of freedom system  undamped and damped vibrations  critical damping  Logarithmic decrement  Forced vibration of SDOF systems  Harmonic excitation Dynamic magnification factor – Phase angle – Bandwidth.
UNIT II
Introduction to Structural Dynamics : Fundamental objectives of dynamic analysis  Types of prescribed loading  Methods of discretization  Formulation of equations of motion by different methods – Direct equilibration using Newton’s law of motion / D’Alembert’s principle, Principle of virtual work and Hamilton principle. Single Degree of Freedom Systems : Formulation and solution of the equation of motion  Free vibration response  Response to Harmonic, Periodic, Impulsive and general dynamic loadings  Duhamel integral.
UNIT III
Multi Degree of Freedom Systems : Selection of the degrees of Freedom – Evaluation of structural property matrices  Formulation of the MDOF equations of motion  Undamped free vibrations  Solutions of Eigen value problem for natural frequencies and mode shapes  Analysis of Dynamic response – Normal coordinates – Uncoupled equations of motion  Orthogonal properties of normal modes  Mode superposition procedure.
UNIT IV
Practical Vibration Analysis: Introduction  Stodola method  Fundamental mode analysis  Analysis of second and higher modes  Holzer method  Basic procedure.
Continuous Systems: Introduction  Flexural vibrations of beams  Elementary case – Derivation of governing differential equation of motion  Analysis of undamped free vibrations of beams in flexure  Natural frequencies and modeshapes of simple beams with different end conditions  Principles of application to continuous beams.
UNIT V
Introduction to Earthquake Analysis: Introduction  Excitation by rigid base translation  Lumped mass approach  SDOF and MDOF systems  I. S. Code methods of analysis for obtaining response of multi storeyed buildings.
REFERENCES:
1. Dynamics of Structures by Clough & Penzien, McGraw Hill, New york
2. Structural Dynamics by Mario Paz, C.B.S Publishers, New Delhi.
3. Dynamics of Structures by Anil K. Chopra, Pearson Education (Singapore), Delhi.
4. I.S: 1893  1984, “Code of practice for Earthquake resistant design of Structures” and
latest I.S: 1893  2002 (version) Part1
EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN OF BUILDINGS
UNIT  I
Engineering Seismology: Earthquake phenomenon cause of earthquakesFaults Plate tectonics Seismic waves Terms associated with earthquakesMagnitude/Intensity of an earthquakescalesEnergy releasedEarthquake measuring instrumentsSeismoscope, Seismograph, accelerographCharacteristics of strong ground motions Seismic zones of India.
UNIT  II
Conceptual design: IntroductionFunctional planningContinuous load pathOverall form simplicity and symmetryelongated shapesstiffness and strengthHorizontal and Vertical membersTwisting of buildingsDuctilitydefinitionductility relationshipsflexible buildingsframing systemschoice of construction materialsunconfined concrete confined concrete masonryreinforcing steel. Introduction to earthquake resistant design: Seismic design requirementsregular and irregular configurationsbasic assumptions design earthquake loadsbasic load combinationspermissible stressesseismic methods of analysisfactors in seismic analysisequivalent lateral force methoddynamic analysis response spectrum methodTime history method.
UNIT  III
Reinforced Concrete Buildings: Principles of earthquake resistant deign of RC members Structural models for frame buildings Seismic methods of analysis Seismic deign methods IS code based methods for seismic design Seismic evaluation and retrofitting Vertical irregularities Plan configuration problems Lateral load resisting systems Determination of design lateral forces Equivalent lateral force procedure Lateral distribution of base shear. Masonry Buildings: Introduction Elastic properties of masonry assemblage Categories of masonry buildings Behaviour of unreinforced and reinforced masonry walls Behaviour of walls Box action and bands Behaviour of infill walls Improving seismic behaviour of masonry buildings Load combinations and permissible stresses Seismic design requirements Lateral load analysis of masonry buildings.
UNIT  IV
Structural Walls and NonStructural Elements: Strategies in the location of structural walls sectional shapes variations in elevation cantilever walls without openings – Failure mechanism of nonstructures Effects of nonstructural elements on structural system Analysis of nonstructural elements Prevention of nonstructural damage Isolation of nonstructures.
UNIT  V
Ductility Considerations in Earthquake Resistant Design of RC Buildings: Introduction Impact of Ductility Requirements for Ductility Assessment of Ductility Factors affecting Ductility Ductile detailing considerations as per IS 13920. Behaviour of beams, columns and joints in RC buildings during earthquakesVulnerability of open ground storey and short columns during earthquakes. Capacity Based Design: Introduction to Capacity Design, Capacity Design for Beams and
ColumnsCase studies.
REFERENCE BOOKS:
Earthquake Resistant Design of structures – S. K. Duggal, Oxford University Press
Earthquake Resistant Design of structures – Pankaj Agarwal and Manish Shrikhande, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.
Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Building – T. Paulay and M.J.N. Priestly, John Wiley & Sons
Masory and Timber structures including earthquake Resistant Design –Anand S.Arya, Nem chand & Bros
Earthquake –Resistant Design of Masonry Building –Miha Tomazevic, Imperial college Press.
Earthquake Tips – Learning Earthquake Design and Construction C.V.R. Murty.
REFERENCE CODES:
IS: 1893 (Part1) 2002. “Criteria for Earthquake Resistant – Design of structures.” B.I.S.,
New Delhi.
IS:43261993, “ Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction of Building”, Code of Practice B.I.S., New Delhi.
IS:139201993, “ Ductile detailing of concrete structures subjected to seismic force”– Guidelines, B.I.S., New Delhi.
LOWCOST HOUSING TECHNIQUES
UNITI
a) Housing Scenario Introducing Status of urban housing Status of Rural Housingb). Housing Finance: Introducing Existing finance system in India Government role as facilitator Status at Rural Housing Finance Impedimently in housing finance and related issues
b) Land use and physical planning for housing: Introduction Planning of urban land Urban land ceiling and regulation act Effectincey of building bye lans Residential Densities
c) Housing the urban poor: Introduction Living conditions in slums Approaches and strategies for housing urban poor.
UNITII
Development and adopt on of low cost housing technology: Introduction Adoption of innovative cost effective construction techniques Adoption of precast elements in partial prefabrication Adopting of total prefabrication of mass housing in India General remarks on pre cast rooting/flooring systems Economical wall system Single. Brick thick loading bearing wall 19cm thick load bearing masonery walls Half brick thick load bearing wall Flyash grypsym thick for masonry Stone Block masonery
Adoption of precast R.C. plank and join system for roof/floor in the building
UNITIII
Alternative building materials for low cost housing: Introduction Substitute for scarce materials Ferrocement Gypsum boards Timber substitutions Industrial wastes Agricultural wastes.
UNITIV
Low cost Infrastructure services: Introducing Present status Technological options Low cost sanitation’s Domestic wall Water supply energy. Rural Housing: Introduction traditional practice of rural housing continuous Mud Housing technology Mud roofs Characteristics of mud Fire resistant treatment for
thatched roof Soil stabilization Rural Housing programs
UNITV
Housing in Disaster Prone areas: Introduction Earthquake Damages to houses Traditional Houses in disaster prone areas Type of Damages and Railways of nonengineered buildings Repair and restore action of earthquake Damaged nonengineered buildings recommendations for future constructions Requirement’s of structural safety
of thin precast roofing units against  Earthquake forces Status of R& D in earthquake strengthening measures Floods cyclone future safety.
TEXT / REFERENCE BOOKS:
Building materials for low –income houses – International council for building research studies and documentation’s.
Hand book of low cost housing by A.K.Lal – Newage international publishers.
Properties of Concrete – Neville A.M. Pitman publishing Limited London.
Light weight concrete Academic kiado Rudhai .G – Publishing home of Hungarian Academy of Sciences 1963.
Low cost Housing – G.C. Mathur
Modern trends in housing in developing countries – A.G. Madhava Rao D.S. Ramachandra Murthy & G.Annamalai
REPAIR AND REHABILITATION OF STRUCTURES
UNITI
Materials for Repair: Materials: Construction chemicals, Mineral admixtures, Composites, Fibre reinforced concrete, High performance concrete, Polymerimpregnated concrete. Techniques to Test the Existing Strengths: Destructive and nondestructive tests on concrete. Special concretes and mortar, concrete chemicals, special elements for acclerated strength gain, Expansive cement , polymer concrete, sulphur infiltrated concrete, ferro cement, Fibre reinforced concrete.
UNITII
Repairs of Multistorey Structures: Cracks in concrete, Possible damages to the structural element beams, Slab, Column, Footing, etc., Repairing techniques like Jackchu, Grouting, External prestressing, Use of chemical admixtures, Repairs to the fire damaged structure.
UNITIII
Techniques for Repair; Rust eliminators and polymers coating for rebars during repair, foamed concrete, mortar and dry pack, vacuum concrete, Gunite and shotcrete Epoxy injection, Mortar repair for cracks, shoring and underpinning.
Repairs to Masonry Structures & Temples: Damages to masonry structures – Repairing techniques, Damages to temples – Repairing techniques. Foundation Problems: Settlement of soils – Repairs, Sinking of piles – Repairs.
UNITIV
Corrosion of Reinforcement: Preventive measures – Coatings – Use of SBR modified cementitious mortar, Epoxy resin mortar, Acrylic modified cementitious mortar, Flowing concrete.
UNITV
Temporary Structures: Need for temporary structures under any Hazard, Various temporary structures, Case studies.
Case Studies: At least 10 case studies.
References:
“Renovation of Structures” by Perkins.
“Repairs of Fire Damaged Structures” by Jagadish, R.
“Forensic Engineering” by Raikar, R.N.
“Deterioration, Maintenance and Repair of Structures” by Johnson, McGraw Hill.
“Concrete Structures: Repairs, Water Proofing and Protection” by Philip H. Perkins, Applied Sciences Publications Ltd., London, pp.302.
“Durability of Concrete Structure: Investigation, Repair, Protection” Edited by Geoffmangs, E. & FN SPON, An Imprint of Chapman & Hall, pp.270.
“Structural Failure” by Tomoss Weirzbicki, Norman Jones, Wiley Interscience, pp.551.
“Deterioration, Maintenance and Repair of Structures” by Johnson, McGraw Hill, pp.375.
“Design and Construction, Failures, Lessons from Forensic Investigation” by Dov Kaminetzky, McGraw Hill, pp.600.
Dension Campbell, Allen and Harold Roper, Concrete Structures, Materials,Maintenance and Repair, Longman Scientific and Technical, U.K, 1991.
RT. Allen and S.C. Edwards, Repair of concrete Structures, Blakie and sons, UK, 1987.
MS. Shetty, Concrete Technology – Theory and practice, S.Chand and company, New Delhi, 1992.
Santhakumar, S.R. Training course notes on damage assessment and Repair in low cost housing RHDCNBO Anna University, Madras, July, 1992.
Raikar, R.N. learning from failures – deficiencies in Design, construction and service– R & D centre (SDCPL), Raikar Bhavan, Bombay, 1987.
N. Palaniappan, Estate Management, Anna Institute of Management, Madras Sep. 1992.
F.K. Garas, J.L. Clarke, GST Armer, Structural Assessment, Butterworths, UK April 1987.
A.R. Santhakumar, Concrete chemicals – Theory and applications, Indian society for construction Engineering and Technology, Madras. 1993 (In press)
STABILITY OF STRUCTURES
UNITI
Buckling of Columns: Method of neutral equilibrium, Critical load of the Euler column, Linear column theory – An eigen value problem, Effective length concept, Higher order differential equation for columns initially bent columns, Effect of shear stress on buckling, eccentrically loaded columns, beam columns (Beam columns with concreted lateral load, distributed, load end moment), Inelastic buckling of columns, Double modulus theory, Tangent modulus theory, Shanley theory of inelastic column behaviour.
UNITII
Approximate Methods of Analysis: Conservation of energy principles, Calculation of critical loads using approximate deflection curve, Principle of stationary potential energy, RaleighRitz method, Buckling load of column with variable crosssection, Galerkin’s method, Calculation of critical load by finite differences, Unevenly spaced pivot points, Matrix stiffness method, Effect of axial load on bending stiffnessslope deflection equations, Buckling of column loaded along the length using energy methods.
UNITIII
Buckling of Frames: Modes of buckling, Critical load of a simple frame using neutral equilibrium, Slope deflection equations and matrix analysis.
Lateral buckling of cantilever and simply supported beams of rectangular and Isections and use of energy method and finite differences.
UNITIV
Buckling of Plates: Differential equation, Strain energy of bending, Critical load, Finite difference approach inelastic buckling of plates.
UNITV
Matrix approach for Frames: Criterion for determination of critical loads, Stiffness influence coefficients for members without axial load, Derivation of stability functions, Problem involving Nonsways, Modified stiffness of beams, Frames with sway, Multibar frames.
REFERENCES:
1. “Principles of Structural Stability Theory” by Alexander Chajes.
2. “Theory of Elasticity Stability” by Timoshenko and Gere.
Stability of metalic structure by Blunch –Mc Graw hill
Theory of Beam columns Vol I by chem & Atsute Mc.Graw Hill.
Smitses, Elastic stability of structures, Prentice Hall, 1973.
Timoshenko, S., and Gere., theory of Elastic stability, Mc Graw Hill Book company,1973.
Brush and Almorth., Buckling of bars plates and shells, Mc Graw Hill book company, 1975.
Chajes, A., Principles of Structural Stability Theory, Prentice Hall, 1974
Ashwini Kumar, stability theory of Structures, TATA Mc Graw Hill publishing company Ltd, New Delhi, 1985.
Elastic stability by Bleaigh.
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE AND STEEL STRUCTURES
UNITI
INTRODUCTION: Development of prestressed concrete –Advantages and Disadvantages of PSC over RCC General principles of prestressingpre tensioning and post tensioning –Materials used in PSChigh strength concrete –High tension steel Different types /methods/systems of prestressing. Losses of prestress: Estimation of the loss of prestress due to various causes like elastic shortening of concrete ,creep of concrete, shrinkage of concrete, relaxation of steel, slip in anchorage, friction etc.
UNITII
Flexure: Analysis of sections for flexure in accordance with elastic theoryAllowable stressesDesign criteria as per I.S code of practice –Elastic design of Beams (rectangular, I and T sections) for Flexure –Introduction to partial prestressing.
Shear, bond, Bearing and Anchorage: shear in PSC beams –Principal stresses – Conventional elastic design for sheartransfer of prestress in pretensioned memberstransmission length –Bond stressesbearing at anchorage –Anchorage zone stresses in posttensioned membersAnalysis and design of end blocks by Guyon, Magnel and approximate methods –Anchorage zone reinforcements.
UNITIII
Deflections: IntroductionFactors influencing deflectionsshort term and long term time deflections of uncracked and cracked members.
Composite Construction: Types of composite constructionstress distribution in composite sections analysis of stressesDifferential shrinkageDesign of simple composite sections.
UNITIV
Statistically indeterminate structures: Introduction –advantages and disadvantages of continuity –Layouts for continuous beamsprimary and secondary moments –Elastic analysis of continuous beamsLinear transformationConcordant cable profileDesign of continuous beams.
UNITV
Circular prestressing: Introduction –Circumferential prestressing Design of Prestressed concrete tanks –vertical prestressing in tanksDome prestressing.
Introduction to prestressed of steel structures.
REFERENCE BOOKS:
Prestressed Concrete by Lin
Prestressed Concrete by S.Krishnam raju
Research materials on prestressing steel structures
ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS AND FUZZY LOGIC
UNITI
Introduction to Neural Networks: ANN definition, components, input, output and hidden layers, threshold value, weights. Relationship of ANN with other technologies.
UNITII
Neural Networks Models: Perceptron model, Feedforward networkback propagation, Hopfeild network, Adaline and Madaline models.
UNITIII
Learning and Training: Objective of learning, Supervised and Unsupervised learning, Hebb’s rule, Delta Rule.
UN ITIV
Fuzzy Logic: Crispness, Uncertainty, Vagueness, Fuzzyness, Fuzzy sets, Fuzzy Relations, Fuzzy association memory, Fuzzy events, Means, Variances.
UNITV
Applications: Applications of fuzzylogic in neural networks, Applications of fuzzylogic and neural networks in Civil Engineering with case studies.
REFERENCES:
Neural Networks and Fuzzy Systems by Bart. Kosko, pretence hall of India, 1994.
Artificial Neural Networks by Robert J. Schalokoff.
Fuzzysets Uncertainity an information by George.J.Klir and Tina, Pretence Hall of India, New Delhi.
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF TALL BUILDINGS
UnitI
Design Criteria Philosophy, Materials – Modern concepts – High Performance Concrete, Fibre Reinforced Concrete, Light weight concrete, Self Compacting Concrete.
UNITII
Gravity Loading – Dead load, Live load, Impact load, Construction load, Sequential loading. Wind Loading – Static and Dynamic Approach, Analytical method, Wind Tunnel Experimental methods. Earthquake Loading – Equivalent lateral Load analysis, Response Spectrum Method, Combination of Loads.
UNITIII
Behavior of Structural Systems Factors affecting the growth, height and structural form, Behaviour of Braced frames, Rigid Frames, Infilled frames, Shear walls, Coupled Shear walls, Wall–Frames, Tubular, Outrigger braced, Hybrid systems.
UNITIV
Analysis and Design Modeling for approximate analysis, Accurate analysis and reduction techniques, Analysis of structures as an integral unit, Analysis for member forces, drift and twist. Computerized 3D analysis. Design for differential movement, Creep and Shrinkage effects, Temperature Effects and Fire Resistance.
UNITV
Stability Analysis Overall buckling analysis of frames, wall–frames, Approximate methods, Second order effect of gravity loading, P–Delta Effects, Simultaneous first order and PDelta analysis, Translational instability, Torsional Instability, Out of plumb effects, Effect of stiffness of members and foundation rotation in stability of structures.
TEXT BOOKS:
Bryan Stafford Smith and Alex Coull, “Tall Building Structures  Analysis and Design”, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1991.
Taranath B.S, “Structural Analysis and Design of Tall Buildings”, McGrawHill, 1988.
OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES IN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING
UNIT I
Introduction to Optimization: Introduction  Historical developments – Engineering applications of Optimization  Statement of an Optimization problem  Classification of Optimization problems  Optimization Techniques. Optimization by calculus: Introduction  Unconstrained functions of a single variable  Problems involving simple constraints – Unconstrained functions of several variables  treatment of equality constraints  Extension to multiple equality constraints  Optimization with inequality constraints  The generalized NewtonRaphson method.
UNIT II
Linear Programming: Introduction  Applications of linear programming – standard form of a linear programming problem  Geometry of linear programming problems  Definitions and theorems  Solution of a system of Linear simultaneous equations  Pivotal reduction of a general system of equations  Motivation of the Simplex Method  Simplex Algorithm  Two phases of the simplex method. nonLinear Programming: Introduction  Unimodal Function  Unrestricted search  Exhaustive search Dichotomous search  Interval Halving method  Fibonacci method  Golden section method  Comparison of elimination methods  Unconstrained optimization techniques  Direct search methods  Random search methos  grid search method  Univariate method Powell's method  Simplex method  Indirect search methods  Gradient of a function  Steepest descent method  Conjugate gradient  Newton's method.
UNIT III
Dynamic Programming: Introduction  Multistage decision processes  concept of suboptimization and the principle of optimality  computational procedure in dynamic programming  example illustrating the Calculus method of solution – example illustrating the Tabular of solution  conversion of a final value problem into an initial value problem  continuous dynamic programming  Additional applications.
UNIT IV
Network Analysis: Introduction  Elementary graph theory  Network variables and problem types  Minimumcost route  Network capacity problems  Modification of the directional sense of the network.
UNIT V
Application of Optimization techniques to trusses, Beams and Frames.
REFERENCES
Optimization: Theory and Applications by S.S.Rao.
Numerical Optimization Techniques for Engineering Design with applications by G.N.Vanderplaats.
Elements of Structural Optimization by R.T.Haftka and Z.Gurdal.
Optimum Structural Design by U.Kirsch.
Optimum Design of Structures by K.I.Majid.
Introduction to Optimum Design by J.S.Arora.
DESIGN WITH GEOSYNTHETICS
UNITI
Geosynthetics: Introduction to Geosynthetics – Basic description – History – Manufacturing methods – Uses and Applications.
UNITII
Properties and Testing Methods: Properties and Testing methods of Geotextiles – Geogrids – Geomembranes – Geocomposites.
UNITIII
Geotextiles: Designing for Separation – Reinforcement – Stabilization – Filtration – Drainage and Moisture barriers.
UNITIV
Geogrids:Designing for Reinforcement – Stabilization – Designing Gabions – Construction methods – Design of retaining walls.Geomembranes: Survivability Requirements – Pond Liners – Covers for Reservoirs – Canal Liners – Landfill Liners – Caps and closures – Dams and Embankments.
UNITV
Geocomposites:Geocomposites – An added advantage – Geocomposites in Separation – Reinforcement – Filtration – Geocomposites as Geowebs and Geocells – Sheet drains – Strip drains and Moisture barriers.
REFERENCE:
1. “Designing with Geosynthetics by Robert M. Koerner Prantice Hall, Eaglewood cliffs,
NJ 07632.
2. “Construction and Geotechnical Engineering using Synthetic Fabries” by Robert M.
Koerner and Josoph P. Welsh. John Willey and Sons, New York.
3. “Engineering with Geosynthetics”, by G. Venkatappa Rao and GVS Suryanarayana
Raju – Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited – New Delhi.
4. “Foundation Analysis and Design” by J.E. Bowles McGraw Hill Publications
GEOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
UNIT I
Introduction to Ground water contamination, pollutant transport and ground water remediation. Sources and Types of ground water contamination – introduction – under ground storage tanks, Land fills, surface impoundments, waste disposal injection wells, Septic system, Agricultural wastes, Land application, radioactive contamination, other sources of contamination.
UNIT II
Data Collection methods: Introduction, Geological data acquisition – Drilling methods – Solid flight auger drilling – Hollow stem auger drilling – Wet rotating drilling – Hand auger soil boring – sample collection – Soil core logging – Cone penetration testing – Geophysical methods; Hydrologic data acquisition – monitoring well construction – well material – Screen interval selection – Installation procedure – Survey specification – Protective casing requirements – Well development procedures; Acquisition of soil and Ground water quality data.
UNIT III
Contaminant Transport Mechanisms: Introduction – Advection process – Diffusion – Dispersion process – Diffusion – Mass transport Equations : Derivation of advection dispersion equation for solute transport; One Dimensional Models – Continuous source in one dimension – Instantaneous source in one dimension – Adsorption effects – Transport in one dimensional with first order decay – Sorption: The concept of sorption, Factors influencing sorption – Contaminant characteristics, Soil characteristics, Fluid media characteristics. Sorption Isotherm: Linear sorption Isotherm – Freundlich Sorption isotherm – Langmuir Sorption Isotherm, Sorption effects on fate and transport of pollutants.
UNIT IV
Flow and Transport of Pollutants in Unsaturated zone: Capillarity, soilwater characteristic curves, Unsaturated Hydraulic conductivity, Governing equation for unsaturated flow, measurement of soil properties.
UNIT V
Non – Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs): Introduction – Comparison of fate of dissolved mass versus NAPL mass Types of NAPLs – LNAPL – DNAPL; NAPL Transport – general process – NAPL transport at the pore level  Downward Migration of DNAPLs in saturated zone – NAPL movement through Vadose zone – LNAPL behaviour at the water table – NAPL Transport at the site level – LNAPL conceptual models – DNAPL conceptual models, NAPL transport.
TEXT BOOKS:
Ground water Contamination (Transport and Remediation) By Philip. B. Bedient, Hanadi,
S. Rifai & Charles. J. Newell, Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ07458.
REFERENCES:
Geoenvironmental Engineering by R. Krishna Reddy  John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Geotechnical Engineering by Gulahati, S.K. and Datta, M. – Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Company
Geotechnical Engineering Principles and Practices by Coduto – Pearson Education (PHI)
Geoenvironmental engineering by Reddy, L.N and Inyang, I.H. – Marcel Drekker, 2000.
Environmental geotechniques by Sarsby, R. – Thompson Telford, 2000.
Geotechnical Practices for Waste Disposal by Daniel, D.E., 1993.
ROCK MECHANICS AND ENGINEERING
UNITI
Engineering Classification of Rocks: Classification of intact rocks, Rock mass classifications, Rock Quality Designation (RQD), Rock Structure Rating (RSR), Rock Mass Rating (RMR), Norwegian Geotechnical Classification (Qsystem), Strength
and modulus from classifications, Classification based on strength & modulus and strength and fracture strain, Geoengineering classification.
UNITII
Laboratory and InSitu Testing of Rocks: Physical properties, Compressive strength, Tensile strength, Direct shear test, Triaxial shear test, Slake durability test, Schmidt rebound hardness test, Sound velocity test, InSitu Tests: Seismic methods,
Electrical resistivity method, In situ stresses, Plate loading test, Goodman jack test, Plate jacking test, Insitu shear test, Field permeability test.
UNITIII
Strength, Modulus and StressesStrain Responses of Rocks: Factors influencing rock response, Strength criteria for isotropic intact rocks, Modulus of intact rocks, effect of confining pressure, Uniaxial Compressive strength, Strength criteria for intact rocks, Strength due to induced anisotropy in rocks,. Stress Strain Models: Constitutive relationships, Elastic, Elastoplastic, Viscoelastic, Elastoviscoplastic stressstrain models.
UNITIV
Stability of Rock Slopes and Foundations on Rocks: Rock slopes, Modes of failure, Rotational failure, Plane failure, Design charts, Wedge method of analysis, Buckling failure, Toppling failure, Improvement of slope stability and protection. Foundations on Rock: Introduction, Estimation of bearing capacity, Stress distribution, Sliding stability of dam foundations, strengthening measures, Settlements in rocks, Bearing capacity of pile/pier in rock, Remedial measures, Foundations located on edge of jointed slope.
UNITV
Underground and Open Excavations: Blasting operational planning, Explosive products, Blast Design, Underground blast design, Controlled blasting techniques, blasting damage and control, Safe practice with explosives and shots.
REFERENCES:
1. Goodman ô€‚± Introduction to Rock mechanics, Willey International (1980).
2. Ramamurthy, T.  Engineering in Rocks for slopes, foundations and tunnels, Prenice Hall of India.
3. Jaeger, J. C. and Cook, N. G. W. ô€‚± Fundamentals of Rock Mechanics, Chapman and Hall, London.
4. Hoek, E. and Brown, E. T.  Underground Excavation in Rock, Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 1982.
5. Brady, B. H. G. and Brown, E. T.  Rock Mechanics for Underground Mining, Chapman & Hall, 1993
SOIL DYNAMICS AND MACHINE FOUNDATIONS
UnitI
Fundamentals of Vibration: Definitions, Simple harmonic motion, Response of SDOF systems of Free and Forced vibrations with and without viscous damping, Frequency dependent excitation, Systems under transient loads, Rayleigh’s method of fundamental frequency, Logarithmic decrement, Determination of viscous damping, Transmissibility, Systems with Two and Multiple degrees of freedom, Vibration measuring instruments.
UNIT II
Wave Propagation and Dynamic Soil Properties: Propagation of seismic waves in soil deposits  Attenuation of stress waves, Stressstrain behaviour of cyclically loaded soils, Strength of cyclically loaded soils, Dynamic soil properties  Laboratory and field testing techniques, Elastic constants of soils, Correlations for shear modulus and damping ratio in sand, gravels, clays and lightly cemented sand. Liquefaction of soils: An introduction and evaluation using simple methods.
UNITIII
Vibration Analyses: Types, General Requirements, Permissible amplitude, Allowable soil pressure, Modes of vibration of a rigid foundation block, Methods of analysis, Lumped Mass models, elastic half space method, elastodynamics, effect of footing shape on vibratory response, dynamic response of embedded block foundation, Vibration isolation.
UNITIV
Design of Machine Foundations: Analysis and design of block foundations for reciprocating engines, Dynamic analysis and design procedure for a hammer foundation, IS code of practice design procedure for foundations of reciprocating and impact type machines. Vibration isolation and absorption techniques.
UNITV
Machine Foundations on Piles: Introduction, Analysis of piles under vertical vibrations, Analysis of piles under translation and rocking, Analysis of piles under torsion, Design procedure for a pile supported machine foundation.
REFERENCES:
I.Chowdhary and S P Dasgupta  Dynamics of Structures and Foundation, 2009.
Arya, S. D, O’Neil, M. and Pincus, G. Design of Structures and Foundations for Vibrating Machines, Gulf Publishing Co., 1979.
Prakash, S. and Puri, V. K.  Foundation for Machines: Analysis and Design, John Wiley & Sons, 1998.
Prakash, S.  Soil Dynamics, McGraw Hill, 1981.
Kameswara Rao, N. S. V.  Vibration Analysis and Foundation Dynamics, Wheeler Publication Ltd., 1998.
Richart, F. E. Hall J. R and Woods R. D.  Vibrations of Soils and Foundations, Prentice Hall Inc., 1970.
Swami Saran  Soil Dynamics and Machine Foundation, Galgotia Publishing, 1999.
Das, B. M.  Principles of Soil Dynamics, PWS KENT publishing Company, Boston
SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION
UNITI
SoilFoundation Interaction: Introduction to soilfoundation interaction problems, Soil behaviour, Foundation behaviour, Interface behaviour, Scope of soil foundation interaction analysis, soil response models, Winkler, Elastic continuum, Two parameter elastic models, Elasticplastic behaviour, Time dependent behaviour. Idealized Soil Response Models for the Analysis of Soil – Foundation Interaction – Elastic Models for Soil Behaviour, Cointler model, Elastic Continuous Model, Two – Parametric Elastic Models – Elastic – Plastic and Time Dependent Behaviour of Soil Masses.
UNITII
Beam on Elastic Foundation Soil Models: Infinite beam, Twoparameters models, Isotropic elastic halfspace model, Analysis of beams of finite length, combined footings. Finite Beams on a Winkler Medium – Method of Initial Parameters – Method of Super Position – Strain Energy Method.
Plates on Elastic Continuum: Thin and thick rafts, Analysis of finite plates, Numerical analysis of finite plates. Analysis of finite plates – Axi Symmetric Leading of a Circular Plate – Circular Plate Resting on a Winkler Medium – Circular Plate Resting on a Two – parameter elastic.
UNIT III
Analysis of Axially and Laterally Loaded Piles and Pile Groups: Elastic analysis of single pile, Theoretical solutions for settlement and load distributions, Analysis of pile group, Interaction analysis, Load distribution in groups with rigid cap, Load deflection prediction for laterally loaded piles, Subgrade reaction and elastic analysis, Interaction analysis, Pileraft system.
UNITIV
Reinforcement – Backfill Interaction in Reinforced Soil Structures
UNITV
GroundFoundationStructure Interaction: Effect of structure on groundfoundation interaction, Static and dynamic loads.
REFERENCES:
Selvadurai, A. P. S.  Elastic Analysis of SoilFoundation Interaction
Poulos, H. G., and Davis, E. H.  Pile Foundation Analysis and Design
Scott, R. F.  Foundation Analysis
Bowles, J. E.  Foundation Design & Analyses
Das, B. M.  Advanced Foundation Engineering.
Soil mechanics by TW Lambe & Whitmen.
Analytical and computer methods in foundation engineering, JE Bowles, McGraw Hill publications.
Foundation analysis and design, JE Bowles, McGraw Hill Publications.
Foundation analysis by RF Scott, Printice Hall
Hytenyi, Beams on Elastic Foundations – university of Michigan Press.
Elastic Analysis of soil – Foundation Interaction. APS Selvadurai – Elsevier
Vibration Analysis and Foundation Dynamics, NSV Kameswara Rao, Wheeler Publishing, New Delhi
CRITICAL STATE SOIL MECHANICS
UnitI
Test paths in consolidation and shear testing. Stress and strain – Stress and Strain Paths and Invariants – Critical State line – families of Underained and Drained tests – Undrained and Drained planes – The Roscoe surface – Rosco surface as a state boundary surface.
UnitII
Behaviour of Over Consolidated Samples – Hvorslev Surface – Critical State Line – Complete State Boundary surface – Volume Changes and Pore Pressure changes – Behaviour of Sands – Effect of Dilation.
UnitIII
Soil behaviour Before failure – Plasticity of Soils – Cam clay  Power in Cam – Clay – Critical States and Yielding of Cam – clay, Compression of Cam – Clay.
UnitIV
Routine Soil Tests and the Critical State Model – Mohr – Coulomb Failure Criterion – One – dimensional compression – Undrained Shear Strength – General states of stress – Pore pressure Parameters – Interpretation of Index Test Data.
UnitV
Soil Parameters for Design – Choice of Analysis – Methods – Choice of Strength Parameters.
REFERENCES:
Atkinson, J. H., The Mechanics of Soils: An Introduction to Critical State Soil Mechanics, McGrawHill, 1978.
Ortigao, J. A. R., Soil Mechanics in the Light of critical State Theories, Taylor & Francis, 1995.
Roger Meier Andrew Abbo and Linbing Wang, Soil Behavior and Geo Micromechanics, ASCE Special Pub., 2010.
Schofield, P. and Wroth, P., Critical State Soil Mechanics, McGraw Hill, London. 1968.
The Mechanics of Soils by J.H. Atkinson and P.L. Bransby & ELBS McGraw – Hill Book Co.,
Critical State Soil Mechanics – A. Sehofield and P. Wroth McGraw Hill Book Co. Guide to soil Mechanics – Bolton seed, Mac millan Press Ltd., London.
The Mechanics of Soils by J.H. Atkinson and P.L. Bransby & ELBS McGraw – Hill Book Co.,
Critical State Soil Mechanics – A. Sehofield and P. Wroth McGraw Hill Book Co.
Guide to soil Mechanics – Bolton seed, Mac millan Press Ltd., London
GEOTECHNICAL EARTH QUAKE ENGINEERING
UNITI
Earthquake Seismology: Seismic waves  Causes of earth quake  Continual drift and Plate tectonics – Earthquake fault sources – Faults, fault geometry, fault movement  Elastic Rebound Theory – Location of Earth Quakes  Quantification of Earthquakes – Intensity and magnitude – Earthquake Energy.
UNITII
Earthquake ground motion: Seismograph  Characteristics of Ground motion:  Ground motion parameters – Amplitude Parameters – peak acceleration, peak velocity, peak displacement other amplitude parameters – Frequency content parameters – ground response spectra, Fourier spectra, Power spectra, response spectra – spectral parameters – duration. Local site Specification and Code based design.
UNITIII
Dynamic Soil Properties: Representation of Stress conditions by the Mohr Circle –
Measurement of Dynamic properties – field, laboratory, interpretation of observed ground response.
Ground Response Analysis: One dimensional response analysis  linear approach, Equivalent linear approach.
Liquefaction and Lateral Spreading – Liquefaction Related phenomena – Liquefaction susceptibility – Initiation of Liquefaction – Effect Liquefaction.
UNITIV
Seismic Design of Foundation: Seismic Design requirements for Foundation – Seismic Bearing capacity  Seismic Settlement.
UNITV
Seismic Slope Stability Analysis: Internal stability and weakened instability  Seismic design of retaining walls: Dynamic Response of Retaining walls  Seismic Displacement of Retaining walls Seismic Design Considerations.
REFERENCE:
“Geotechnical Earth Quake Engineering” by SL Kramer, Pearson Education.
“Earth Quake” W.H. Freeman, New York.
CHANNEL AND RIVER HYDRAULICS
Unit I
Basic Concepts of Free Surface Flow: Flow Regimes, Velocity and Pressure Distribution, Energy Principles and its applications, Specific Energy, Critical Flow Computations, Momentum Equation and its Applications, Specific force Diagram, theoretical Concepts of Surface Roughness, Velocity Equation, Uniform Flow Computation.
Unit II
Steady Gradually Varied Flow: Dynamic Equation, Characteristics of Flow Profile and Methods of Computation, Practical Problems, Gradually Varied Flow Analysis and Computation.
Unit III
Steady Rapidly Varied Flow: Hydraulic Jump Analysis and Location, Jump in Sloping Channels and Oblique Jump.
Unsteady Rapidly Varied Flow: Dam Break Problem, Moving Hydraulic Jump, Positive and Negative Surges.
Unit IV
Hydraulic similitude: Dimensions and dimensional homogeneity, Buckingham’s piterms evaluation. Froude’s, Reynolds, Mach’s and Weber’s laws of similitude, simple applications to hydraulic models, Distorted models, Scale effect.
Unit V
Fluvial Hydraulics: Basic Characteristics of River Beds and Sediments, initiation of Motion, Regimes of Flow, Resistance to Flow in Alluvial Streams, Theories of Bed Load, Suspended Load and Total Load.
Design of stable Channels: Regime and Tractive force Methods.
TEXT BOOKS:
Chow, . V.T. (1979) “Open Channel Hydraulics”, Mc Graw Hill Inc. N York.
Henderson. (1966): “Open Channel Flow”, Mc Millan Pub. London.
Subramanya, K (1996) “Flow in Open Channels”, Tata Mc Graw Hill Pub., 1995.
Garde and Ranga Raju, K.G. (1980): “Mechanics of Sediment Transportation and Alluvial Stream Problems”, Wiley Eastern, N Delhi
Chaudhry M.H. (1994), “Open –Channel Flow”, Prentice Hall of India, N Delhi
French, R.H.(1986), “Open Channel Hydraulics”, Mc Graw Hill Pub Co., N York.
ENGINEERING HYDROLOGY
Unit I
World’s Water Resources: Hydrology and its scope, hydrologic cycle Precipitation Rainguage net work. Checks of rainfall data. Double mass curve. Depth intensity duration relationships.
Infiltration: Factors affecting, Measurement of infiltration, Infiltration curve and infiltration indices.
Unit II
Runoff: The stream flow hydrograph, Hydrograph separation, Unit hydrograph and Synthetic unit hydrographs, SCurve hydrograph, IUH models – Nash. Computation of reservoir capacity:
Hydrology of Droughts: Definition : types of droughts, Effects of drought, Combating drought, reducing runoff losses, reducing evaporation and deep percolation, Efficient use of stored soil water.
Unit III
Hydrology of floods: Causes of floods, flood discharge formulae and envelope curves, Flood frequency analysis.
Unit IV
Probability distributions as applied to Hydrology: Discrete and Continuous Probability Distribution Functions – Binomial, Poisson, Normal, Lognormal , Exponential, gamma Distributions, Extreme Value Distributions, Gumbel and Logpearson Type III distribution.
Unit V
Flood control: Flood control dams, detention basins, levees, diversion channels, flood channel improvement schemes.
Flood routing: routing through a reservoir by I.S.D. method, channel routing by Muskingum method..
TEXT BOOKS:
A Text Book of Hydrology by P. Jayarami Reddy
H.M. Raghunath, Hydrology Wiley Eastern Ltd., 1986.
Engineering Hydrology by Subrahmanyam
Stochastic Hydrology by P. Jayarami Reddy.
GROUND WATER MANAGEMENT & MODELLING
Unit I
Fundamental concepts: Types of aquifers, Vertical distribution of soil water below the ground, Porosity specific yield, hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient, their practical significance, Darcy’s law and its validity. Derivation of basic differential equation and its solutions, Ground Water flow contour and their applications. Tracer techniques in ground water flow studies.
Unit II
Ground Water resources evaluation: Steady and unsteady radial flow of ground water towards a well in confined and unconfined aquifers, Analysis of pumping test data – Theis type curve method, Jacob’s method for Time and Distance draw down tests, Theis recovery method – Estimation of well losses, Yield of open wells – methods of evaluation. Image wells. Geohydrologic boundaries
Unit III
Ground water Management: Water Balance Studies, Perennial Yield, Necessity of artificial recharge techniques. Conjunctive use of surface and ground water. Management of coastal aquifers – Ghyben Herzberg relation ,upcoming of Saline Water Methods of control of salt water intrusion.
Unit IV
Ground water Quality, Ground Water pollution, elements and source of pollution their effects and remedial measures.
Unit V
Aquifer Modelling – Electrical analog models – RC Network techniques. Principles of digital Modelling of aquifers, Numerical Modelling – Flow Modelling Using Finite Difference Methods and Finite Element Methods. Advection Process – Diffusion and Dispersion Process – Solute Transport Modelling.
TEXT BOOKS:
Ground Water Hydrology by D.K. Todd.
Ground Water Hydrology by Raghunath.
Geohydrology by Davis and Dewiest
Geohydrology by K. R. Karanth
Development Evaluation and Monitoring of Ground Water by K.R.Karanth.
Domenice(1972) “Concepts and Models in Groundwater Hydrology” McGraw Hill Inc. N.York
HYDROPOWER DEVELOPMENT
Unit I
Classification of Hydropower schemes, Load Studies and factors, Flow duration curve, Firm and secondary power pondage and storage.
Unit II
Low and high head intakes, forebay, trash rack, gates and their operation, air vent, Design of Penstocks, Pen stock anchorages.
Unit III
Water hammer analysis: Basic equations, solution for linearized equations, arithmetic method and graphical method.
Unit IV
Surge tanks: Different types, their working, Computation of Surges in simple surge tank, surge tank stability.
Unit V
Power Houses: General arrangement of overgrown lower houses component parts and their functions, Criteria for fixing power house dimensions, Selection of type and capa city of turbine . Underground power houses: types of layout their suitability and merits.
TEXT BOOKS:
Hydropower structure by Varshney.
Water Power Engineering by Dandekar and Sharma.
Fluid Transients by V.L. Streeter.
NEUROFUZZY TECHNIQUES AND COMPUTER PROGRAMMING
Unit I
Introduction: Basic concepts of Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic, Differences between conventional computing and NeuroFuzzy computing, Characteristics of NeuroFuzzy computing. Fuzzy Set Theory: Basic definitions and terminology and membership functions – formulation and parameters, basic operations of fuzzy sets – complement, intersection, vision, Tnorm and Tconorm
Unit II
Fuzzy Reasoning and Fuzzy Inference: Fuzzy relations, Fuzzy rules, Fuzzy reasoning, Fuzzy Inference Systems, Fuzzy modelling, Applications of Fuzzy reasoning and modelling in Water Resources Engineering Problems.
Unit III
Fundamental concepts of Artificial Neural Networks: Model of a neuron, activation functions, neural processing, Network architectures, learning methods. Neural Network Models: Feed forward Neural Networks, Back propagation algorithm, Applications of Feed forward networks, Recurrent networks, Hopfield networks, Hebbian learning, Self organising networks, Unsupervised learning, competitive learning.
NeuroFuzzy Techniques: Hydrologic Modelling Time Series Analysis and Modelling, Remote Sensing , Environmental Modelling and Water Management,
Unit IV
Introduction to C and important Concepts. Beginning with C ++ : What is C ++., Applications of C ++, A S imple C ++ programme, More C ++ Statement, An Example with Class, Structure of C++ Program, Creating the Source File, Compiling and Linking.
Unit V
Tokens, Expressions and Control Structures in C ++ : Introduction, Tokens, Keywords, Identifiers, Basic Data Types, UserDefined Data Types, Symbolic Constants. Type Compatibility, Declaration of Variables, Dynamic Initialization of Variables, Reference Variables, Operators in C++ , Scope Resolution Operator, Member Dereferencing Operators, Memory Management Operators, Manipulators, Type Cast Operator, Expressions and Implicit Conversions, Operator Overloading, Operator Precedence, Control Structures
TEXT BOOKS:
Jang, JSR, C.T. Sun and E. Mizutan (1997), “NeuroFuzzy and Soft Computing”,
Prentice Hall, NJ
Simon Haykin, (1994), “Neural Networks, A Comprehensive Foundation”, Mc Millan College Publishing Company
Kosko, B. (1997), “Neural Networks and Fuzzy Systems”, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd. , New Delhi.
Klir, George J., T.A. Forger, (1995), “Fuzzy Sets, Uncertainty and Information”, Prentice Hall of India, Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
Rao V and H. Rao , (1996), “C++ Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic, BPB Publications, New Delhi.
PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS
UNIT I
Introduction to aerial Photogrammetry: Principles of Optics, Types of Aerial Photographs, Stereoscopy, Photoscale, Map vs Mosaic, MosaicKinds of Mosaic, Construction of Mosaic, Ground Control, Parallax measurements for height determinations.
Remote Sensing: Basic Concepts and foundation of remote sensing, Elements involved in Remote Sensing, Electromagnetic spectrum, Remote Sensing terminology, Energy Sources, Energy interactions with Earth Surface features and atmosphere, Resolution, Sensors and Satellites, Visual Interpretation techniquesBasic elements. Interpretation for Terrain Evaluation, Spectral properties of water bodies, Introduction to digital data analysis.
Unit II
Geographic Information Systems: Introduction, GIS definition and Terminology, GIS categories, Components of GIS, Fundamental Operations of GIS, A theoretical Framework for GIS, GIS types of data representation, Raster Data Structures, Vector Data Structures, Comparisons between Data Structures.
Unit III
Data Acquisition and Data Input: Introduction, existing data sets, developing own data, digitization and scanning. Preprocessing: Format conversion, data reduction and generalization, error detection and editing, merging, edge matching, rectification and registration, interpolation.
Unit IV
Data Management: Basic principles of data management: Efficiency, conventional database management systems, Spatial database management product generation: Types of output products, hardware components, Integrated analysis of Spectral and attribute data. Data Quality: Introduction, Components of data quality, Sources of error, Introduction to GPS
Unit V
Remote Sensing & GIS Applications: Land Use/Land cover in water resources, RainfallRunoff modeling, Flood plain zoning, Drought assessment and monitoring, Cropping patterns, condition of crops, irrigation system performance, Watershed Management for sustainable development, watershed characteristics, erosion and deposition, catchment area treatment, Estimation of Sediment load.
TEXT BOOKS:
1. Elements of Photogrammetry by Paul Wolf
Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation by T.M. Lilles and R.W. Kifer.
Geographic Information Systems – A Management Perspective by Stan Aronoff
Elements of Photogrammetry by K.K. Rampal
Principles and Applications of Photogeology by R.W. Shiv Pandey
Remote Sensing in Hydrology by E.T. Engman and R.J. Curney
Geographic Information Systems by David Martin.
PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION, EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT
PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION: Preparation and Construction of Subgrade Soil, Subbase Courses,Base Courses, Bituminous Surface Courses, and Cement Concrete Surface Courses; MORTH specttlcations,Quality control.
.
PAVEMENT INVENTORIES AND EVALUATION: Factors affecting Pavement Deterioration; Functional Condition Evaluation Techniques: Roughness Measurements, Identification of Uniform Sections,Serviceability Concepts: Visual & Ride Rating Techniques, Introduction to Psychometric and Psychophysical Scaling Techniques: Hutchinson's Tracking Task Device Structural Condition Evaluation Techniques: NDT Procedures, Rebound Deflection, Deflection Bowl Measurement and Analysis, Destructive Testing: Remaining Life Concept, Asphaltic Institute's Equivalency Factors.
EVALUATION OF PAVEMENT SAFETY: Importance of Skid Resistance, Factors Affecting Skid Resistance, Skid Resistance Studies, Hydroplaning Reduction with Porous Overlays & Popcorn Friction Overlays;Deterioration Modelling Concepts: Factors Influencing Structural & Functional Condition Deterioration,Examples of Initiation and Progressing Deterioration Models, Use of Deterioration Models by HDM Software
PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE & QUALITY CONTROL: Routine, Responsive Maintenance Programmes, Periodic Maintenance, Special Repairs, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction, Objectives & Components of Pavement Maintenance Management System (PMMS), Stages in Implementing PMMS, Total Quality Management (TQM): Quality Assurance/Quality Control Concepts, Sampling, Tolerances and Controls Related to Profile & Compaction, Role of ISO 9000 in TOM.
PAVEMENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (PMS): Phases and Components of System's Approach, Relationnhip Between System Approach and PMS, Components and Activities of PMS, Interrelationshipsbetween the different components of PMS, Steps in Implementing PMS, Pavement Investment Planning Approaches: Index Ranking, Benefit Maximization & Cost Minimization Methods, Evaluating Alternative Strategies and Decision Criteria Using HDM Package.
REFERENCES:
RCC Haas, W. Ronald Hudson, et ai, Modern Pavement Management, Krieger Publishing Company
ISTE Summer School Report on PMSS by Bangalore University, ISTE, New Delhi.
Mohammed Y. Shahin, Pavement Management for Airports, Roads & Parking Lots, Chapman & Hall
Publishers
Instructor's GuideAsphalt Institute, Asphalt Technology and Construction Practices, Educational
series
AF Stocks, Concrete Pavements, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, New York
Harold N. Atkins, Highway Materials, Soils & Concrete 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall
MORTH, GOI, "SpeCifications for Roads & Bridge Works", New Delhi.
AIR POLLUTION AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES
UNIT I
Classification and properties of air pollutants:
Emission sources major emissions from Global sources importance of anthropogenic sources behaviour and fate of air pollutants photochemical smogeffects of air pollutionhealth, vegetation and materials damage in Indiaair pollution standards  Isolation and heat balance of the atmosphere – different types of terrain – effects of terrain features on atmosphere – mechanical and thermal turbulence Indoor air pollution.
UNIT II
Meteorological aspects of air pollution dispersions:
Temperature lapse Rates and Stabilitywind velocity and turbulencePlume behaviour dispersion of air pollutants solutions to the atmospheric dispersion equation  the Gaussian
Plume Model.
UNIT III
Air pollution sampling and measurement: Types of pollutant sampling and measurement  Ambient air sampling  collection of gaseous air pollutants  collection of particulate pollutants  stack sampling, analysis of air pollutants  sulfur dioxide  nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxidants and ozone  hydrocarbons  particulate matter.
UNIT IV
Control methods:
Sources correction methods  particulate emission control  gravitational settling chambers cyclone separators fabric filters  electrostatic precipitators  wet scrubbers  control of gaseous emissions  adsorption by solids  absorption by liquids  combustion, condensation – control of SO2 emission – desulphurization of flue gases – dry methods – wet scrubbing methods. Control of sulphur dioxide emission  desulphurization of flue gases  dry methodswet scrubbing methods  control of nitrogen oxides  modification of operating conditions  modification of design conditions  effluent gas treatment methods  carbon monoxide control  control of hydrocarbons  mobile sources.
UNIT V
Air pollution from specific industries:
Portland cement plants – steel mills – petroleum refineries
UNIT VI
Vehicular air pollution:
Genesis of Vehicular emissionsNatural Pollution  Gasification of Vehicles  Point sources of Air Pollution from automobiles  Fuel tank, carburettor, crank case  Exhaust emissions Mechanism of Origin of air pollution from automobiles. Automobile air pollution – Indian Scenario  Population and pollution loads of vehicles  Automobile Pollution Control  Control at sources  Exhaust gas treatment devices  Alternate fuels comparison  Thermal Reactor  Catalytic Converter  Automobile Emission Control  Legal measures.
Text books:
Air Pollution, H.C.V. Rao, 1990, McGraw Hill Co.
Environmental Pollution Control, C.S.Rao, Wiley Eastern Ltd., 1993
Air Pollution, M.N. Rao McGraw Hill 1993.
Reference Books:
Fundamentals of Air Pollution, Samuel, J.W., 1971, Addison Wesley Publishing Co.
Air Pollution, Kudesia, V.P. International Student Edition McGraw Hill  Kosakusha
Ltd.,Tokyo.
Fundamentals of Environmental Pollution, Krishnan Khannan, S. Chand & Company
Ltd., 1994
SOLID & HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT
Unit I Solid Waste Collection, Segregation and Transport:
Definition of solid wastes – types of solid wastes – Sources  Industrial, mining, agricultural and
domestic – Characteristics. Solid waste Problems  impact on environmental health – Concepts of waste reduction, recycling and reuse. Handling and segregation of wastes at source. Collection and storage of municipal solid wastes; Analysis of Collection systems. Transfer stations.
Unit II Municipal Solid Waste Management:
Solid waste processing technologies. Mechanical and thermal volume reduction. Biological and chemical techniques for energy and other resource recovery: composting, vermicomposting, termigradation, fermentation. Incineration of solid wastes. Disposal in landfills: site selection, design, and operation of sanitary landfills; Leachate and landfill gas management; landfill closure and postclosure environmental monitoring; landfill remediation. Regulatory aspects of municipal solid waste management.
Unit III Hazardous Wastes:
Hazardous waste definition. Physical and biological routes of transport of hazardous substances – sources and characterization categories and control. Sampling and analysis of hazardous wastes –
analytical approach for hazardous waste characterization – proximate analysis – survey analysis – directed analysis – analytical methods.
Unit IV Hazardous Wastes Management:
Sources and characteristics: handling, collection, storage and transport, TSDF concept. Hazardous
Waste treatment technologies  Physical, chemical and thermal treatment of hazardous waste: solidification, chemical fixation, encapsulation, pyrolysis and incineration. Hazardous waste landfills  Site selections, design and operation. Hazardous waste reduction and Recycling  Regulatory aspects of HWM.
Unit V Biomedical, Radioactive and eWaste Management:
Biomedical waste: Definition, sources, classification, collection, segregation Treatment and disposal.
Radioactive waste: Definition, Sources, Low level and high level radioactive wastes and their management, Radiation standard by ICRP and AERB. Waste characteristics, generation, collection, transport and disposal.
Books:
Hazardous waste management by Prof. Y. Anjaneyulu.
Hazardous waste management Charles A. Wentz. Second edition 1995. McGraw Hill
International.
Integrated solid waste management, George Tchobanoglous, Hilary Theisen & Sammuel A. Vigil.
Criteria for hazardous waste landfills – CPCB guidelines 2000.
Environmental Science by Daniel B. Botkin and Edward A. Keller, Wiley student, 6th edition2009.
PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROCESS FOR WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT
UNITI
Water QualityPhysical, chemical and biological parameters of water Water Quality requirement  Potable water standards Wastewater Effluent standards Water quality indices. Water purification systems in natural systemsPhysical processes chemical processes and biological processesPrimary, Secondary and tertiary treatmentUnit operationsunit processes.
UNITII
Mixing, Clarification  Sedimentation; Types; Aeration and gas transfer – Coagulation and flocculation, coagulation processes  stability of colloids  destabilization of colloidstransport of colloidal particles, Clariflocculation.
UNITIII
Filtration  theory of granular media filtration; Classification of of filters; slow sand filter and rapid sand filter; mechanism of filtration; modes of operation and operational problems; negative head and air binding; dual and multimedia filtration.
UNITIV
Adsorption, adsorption equilibria adsorption isotherms, Disinfection  chlorine dioxide; chloramines; ozonation; UV radiation.
UNITV
Ion Exchangeprocesses, Application Membrane Processes, Reverse osmosis, Ultrafiltration, Electrodyalisis.
REFERENCE BOOKS
1. Weber, W.J. Physicochemical processes for water quality control, John Wiley and sons, Newyork, 1983.
2. Peavy, H.S., Rowe, D.R., Tchobanoglous, G. Environmental Engineering, McGraw Hills, New York 1985
3. Metcalf and Eddy, Wastewater engineering, Treatment and Reuse, Tata McGrawHill, New Delhi, 2003.
0 comments:
Post a Comment