Thursday, 5 June 2014

Pre - Ph.D Examination Notification - August - 2014

Pre - Ph.D Examination Notification - August - 2014::


PAPER – I Subject Code  
S. No Subject  
1 Advanced Transport Phenomena 1308101  
2 Chemical Reaction Design and Analysis 1308102  
3 Advanced Chemical Engineering thermodynamics 1308103  
4 Separation Processes 1308104  
5 Advanced Process Control 1308105  
6 Computational Heat Transfer 1308106  
7 Advanced Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer 1308107  
8 New Separation Techniques 1308108  
9 Optimization in Chemical Processes 1308109  
10 Process Modeling and Simulation 1308110

PAPER - II Subject Code  
S. No Subject  
1 Applied Numerical Methods 1308201  
2 Petroleum Refining – Characterization, Analysis and Separation 1308202  
3 Petroleum Refining – Thermal and Catalytic Process 1308203  
4 Energy Engineering 1308204  
5 Solid and Hazardous Waste Management 1308205  
6 Nano-Materials and Their Applications 1308206  
7 Energy Conversation in Process Industries 1308207  
8 Polymer, Ceramic and Electronic Materials Processing and Applications 1308208  
9 Air Pollution Control Equipment Design 1308209  
10 Hazap and Risk Assessment 1308210


Application of equation of change
Equation of change for isothermal systems, solution of steady state laminar flow problems including Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids equation of change for Non isothermal system, Solution of steady state problems conduction, convection, problems with and without heat generation, Limiting Nusselt number for flow through pipe and slits.

Multicomponent mixtures
Equations of change for multicomponent mixtures summary of multicomponent fluxes use of equations of change for mixtures Stefan-Maxwell equation of problem using stream function

Unsteady state problems and potential flow
Unsteady state flow between two parallel plates oscillating plates, unsteady state through a pipe, heating of finite slab cooling of a sphere in contact with well stirred fluid unsteady state evaporation in a tube of intimate length gas absorption with rapid chemical reaction stream function; potential flow stable state two dimensional flows for momentum heat and mass transfer
Boundary layer studies and tubeless flow
 Flow near a wall suddenly set in motion, flow near the leading edge of a plate heat transfer in laminar traced convection along hearted plate diffusion and chemical reaction isothermal laminar flow along a Double plate steady store boundary layer theory for flow around objects. Time smoothed equation of change for incompressible fluids application of empirical expression to solve turbulent flow problems.

Macroscopic balances
Macroscopic balances to set up steady state problems efflux time for flow from vessels of different geometries, Heating of liquid in an agitated tank disposal of an unsteady state parody unsteady state operations of packed column application of unmerited methods to solve chemical engineering problems.

Text & Reference Books
R.B. Bird, W.E.Steward and E.N.Light foot, “Transport Phenomena”, 2nd Edition, John wiley & sons. 2003.
Ismail tosum, “Modeling in Transport phenomena: a conceptual approach”, Elsevier science, B.V, 1992.
R.s .Brodken and H.C.Heshy, “Transport Phenomena:  a unified approach”, Mc.Graw Hill Books company, 1988.

Models for non ideal flow reactors: Two parameter models, Real CSTR modeled using bypass and dead space, Real CSTR modeled as two CSTR interchange, testing model and determining its parameters.
Mixing fluids: Zero parameter models, Segregation model and qualitative concept of maximum fixedness model.

Fluid particle reactions- design: Various types of contacting in gas-solid operations, Development of performance equation for frequently met contacting pattern assuming uniform gas composition, Particles of a single size, plug flow of solids, Mixture of particles of different but unchanging sizes, Plug flow of solids, mixed flow of particles of a single unchanging size, mixed flow of a size mixture of particles of unchanging size, Application to a fluidized bed with entrainment of solid fines.

Fluid-Fluid reactions Design: Factors to consider in selecting a gas liquid contactor, straight mass transfer, Plug flow G/Plug flow L, Counter current flow in a tower, Mass transfer plus not very slow reaction: Plug flow G/Plug flow L – mass transfer and reaction in a countercurrent tower. Plug flow G/Plug flow L,- mass transfer in a concurrent tower.

Catalysis and catalytic reactors: Design of reactors for Gas- solid reactions, Heterogeneous data analysis for reactor design; Catalyst deactivation- Types of deactivation, Moving bed reactors.
External diffusion on heterogeneous reactions- External resistance to mass transfer: Mass transfer coefficient, mass transfer to a single particle, mass transfer limited reactions in packed beds.
Diffusion and reaction in porous catalysts- Diffusion and reaction in spherical catalyst pellets, internal effectiveness factor, Falsified kinetics, Overall effectiveness factor.

Non isothermal reactor design, energy balance, Non-isothermal adiabatic CSTR, PFR, Flow, reactors at steady state equilibrium conversion, multiple steady state, and ignition extinction curve.

Text & Reference Books:
Fogler, H.S. “Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering” Prentice Hall, 4th Edition, New Jersey, 1986.
Octave Levenspiel “Chemical Reaction Engineering” Wiley Eastern University, 3rd Edition, New Delhi, 2001.
Chemical Engineering Kinetics, J. M. Smith, 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill, 1981.
Elementary Chemical Reactor Analysis, Aris. R., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1969.
Modeling of Chemical Kinetics and Reactor Design, Coker, A.K., Gulf Professional Publishing, 2001.
Fundamentals of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Davis, M.E., and R.J. Davis, McGraw-Hill, 2002.
Chemical Reactor Analysis and Design, Froment, G.B., and K.B. Bischoff, 2nd Ed., Wiley, 1990.
An Introduction to Chemical Engineering Kinetics and Reactor Design, C.G. Hill Jr., John Wiley & Sons, 1977.
Reaction Kinetics for Chemical Engineers, Stanley M.Walas. McGraw-Hill, 1959.


Basic Concepts and Relationships
Review of basic postulates, Maxwell’s relations, Legendre transformation, Pure component properties, Theory of corresponding states, Real fluids.
Equilibrium, Phase rule, Single component phase diagrams, Introduction to multi-component multi phase equilibrium.

Thermodynamic properties from Volumetric Data
Thermodynamic properties with independent variables P & T, Fugacity of a component in a moderate pressure, Fugacity of a pure liquid or solid, Thermodynamic properties with independent variables V & T, Fugacity of a component in a mixture according to van der Waal’s equation, Phase equilibria from volumetric properties.
Intermolecular Forces, Corresponding States and Osmotic Systems
Potential energy functions, Electrostatic forces, Polarizability and induced dipoles, Intermolecular forces between Non-polar molecules, Mie’s potential energy function for Non polar molecules, Structural effects, Specific forces, Hydrogen bonds, Electron donor- Electron acceptor complexes, Hydrophobic interaction, Molecular interactions in Dense fluid media, Molecular theory of corresponding states theory to more complicated molecules.

Fugacities in gas mixtures
The Lewis fugacity rule, The virial equation of state, Extension to mixtures, Fugacities from the viral equation, Fugacities at high densities, solubility’s of solids and liquids in compressed gases.
Fugacities in liquid Mixtures: Excess functions
The ideal solution, fundamental relations of excess functions, Activity and activity coefficients, Testing equilibrium data for thermodynamic consistency, Wohl’s expansion for the excess Gibbs energy, Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC equations, Excess functions and partial miscibility, Upper and lower consolute temperatures, Excess functions for multicomponent mixtures, Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC equations for Mixture.
Fugacities in liquid Mixtures: Models and theories of solutions
The theory of van Laar, The Scatchard –Hildebrand theory, Excess functions from an equation of state, the lattice model, Activity coefficients from group contribution methods, Chemical theory, Activity coefficients in associated solutions, Associated solutions with physical interactions, Activity coefficients in solvated solutions,

Solubility’s of gases in Liquids
The ideal solubility of a gas, Henry’s law and its thermodynamic significance, Effect of pressure on gas solubility, Effect of temperature on gas solubility, Estimation of gas solubility, Gas solubility in mixed solvents, Chemical effects on gas solubility.
Solubility’s of solids in liquids
Thermodynamic framework, Calculation of the pure solute fugacity ratio, Ideal solubility, Non-ideal solutions, Solubility of a solid in a mixed solvent, Solid solutions, Solubility of antibiotics in mixed Non-aqueous solvents

VLE/SLE/LLE/VLLE & Chemical Equilibrium
Molecular theories of activity coefficients, Lattice models, Multi phase multi component phase equilibrium, VLE/SLE/LLE/VLLE, Chemical equilibrium and combined phase and reaction equilibria, Thermodynamics of irreversible processes, Energy analysis of chemical engineering processes.
Text & Reference Books:
D.A. McQuarrie, statistical mechanics, viva books private limited, 2003.
J.M. Prausnitz, R.M. Lichtenthaler and E.G.Azevedo, “Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid Phase Equilibria”, 3rd Edition Prentice hall Inc., New Jersey, 1996.
H.Terrel, An introduction to statistical thermodynamics, Dover, 1960.
M.P.Allen, D.J.Tildesley, “Computer simulation of liquids”, Oxford, 1989.
H.B. Callen, “Thermodynamics and an introduction to thermo statics”, 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, 1985.
J.M.Smith, H.C.V Ness and M.M.Abott, “Introduction to chemical Engineering Thermodynamics” 6th Edition, Tata-McGraw Hill, 2003.

Characteristics of separation processes:  Mass and energy agents, equilibrium processes and rate governed processes, selection of separation processes factors influencing the choice of a separation process, Degree of freedom analysis for an absorber, two product distillation column, pattern of change in concentration and temperature distribution along the column for binary and multicomponent multistage separations.
Thermodynamic analysis of processes: concept of availability and lost work, calculations on lost work for a simple two product distillation column.

MESH models for computer solution (only teach hoe the equations are arranged to ease a computer solution, no simulation). Heat integrated and divided wall distillation columns to minimize energy consumption.

Azeotropic distillation & extractive distillation
Azeotropic distillation, extractive distillation and pressure swing distillation, how to select entrainers for Azeotropic and extractive distillation, Industrial applications of these distillation techniques.
 Residue curve maps: Introduction, explaining the concepts using ternary diagrams, Direct and indirect splits, distillation boundaries, identifying feasible and infeasible products in distillation and their use in selecting entrainers for distillation.

Reactive distillation: Introduction, industrial applications and mathematical model development (Only the model development no simulation)
Batch distillation: Introduction, industrial applications and mathematical model development using Fenske assumption (Only the model development; no simulation).

Rate based separation processes: Introduction, industrial applications and mathematical model development (Only the model development no simulation)
Introduction  to Cryogenic separations.

Text/ Reference books:
C. Judson King, “Separation Processes” Mc Graw Hi ll, 1982.
J.Sieder and E.J. Henley “Separation Processes Design” Wiley John Sons Publishers, 1998.

Review of single input single output (SISO) systems, Routh stability criteria.
Frequency response analysis: Bode and Nyquist plots, effect of process parameters on Bode and Nyquist plots, closed loop stability concepts, Bode and Nyquist stability.

Internal model control: Introduction to model based control, practical open loop controller design, generalization of the open loop control design procedure, model uncertainty and disturbances, The IMC structure, IMC design procedure, effect of model uncertainty and disturbances; IMC in context of PID Controller.

Control loop interaction: Introduction,   motivation, the general pairing problem, the relative gain array, properties and application of the RGA.
Multivariable right half plane (RHP) zeros and their performance limitations, Design of ideal Decouples.

Model predictive control: Models forms of model predictive control, constrained and unconstrained approach, analysis of dynamic matrix control.

State space and transfer function representation and their interrelationships, Sampling and Z-transforms, Open loop and closed loop response.

Text & Reference books:
Wayne Bequette, B.,“Process control: Modeling, Design and Simulation” PHI, 2003.
Stephanopoulos, “Chemical process control” An Introduction to Theory & Practices: PHI, 2010.
Steven E. LeBlanc, Donald R. Coughanowr, “Process Systems Analysis and Control” McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2008.
Ogunnaike, B.W. Harmon ray, “Process dynamics, modeling and control” Oxford university press, 1994.
D.E. Saeborg & T.F.Edger, “Process dynamics and control” D.A. Mellichamp Wiley, 2006.


Physical Phenomena Governing Differential Equation - Energy Equation – Momentum Equation - Nature of Co-ordinates -Discretization Methods

Parabolic Equations - Explicit, Implicit and Crank Nicholson Methods. Cartesian and PolarCo-ordinates - Mixed Boundary Condition -Jacobi - Gauss-siedel and SOR Methods.

Heat Condition And Convection Control Volume Approach - Steady and Unsteady One Dimensional Conduction - Two and Three Dimensional -Power Law Scheme – Simpler Algorithm.

General Applicability of the Method - Approximate Analytical Solution - Raleigh's Method. Galerikin Method, Solution Methods.

Isoparametric Element Formulations Conduction and Diffusion Equations - Heat Transfer Packages - Heat 2, HEATAX, RADIAT, ANSYS

Text & Reference Books
Suhas V.Patnakar, Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1980.
Jaluria and Torrance, Computational Heat Transfer - Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1986.
A. R. Mitchell and D.F. Grifths, Finite Difference Method in Partial Differential Equations, John Wiley & Sons, 1980


Properties of fluids and multiphase flow: Introduction: Fluids and fluid properties, basic equations for flowing streams, flow of incompressible fluids, Newtonian, non- Newtonian and non-viscous fluids, determination of flow properties of fluids, flow in pipes and tanks, flow through packed bed and fluidized beds.

Boundary layer theory and statistical theory of turbulence: Laminar flow in closed conduits, Potential flow, Boundary layer theory, Hydrodynamic stability, Turbulence-Statistical theory, Measurement of turbulence intensity, Turbulent flow in closed conduits, Dimensional analysis in fluid dynamics.

Heat transfer in fluids: Combination of heat transfer resistance, Steady and Unsteady state heat conduction, Unsteady state heating and cooling of solid objects, Transient heat conduction, Convection heat transfer co-efficient, Dimensional analysis in convection heat transfer, Heat transfer during Laminar and Turbulent flow in closed conduits-Empirical correlation for high Prandtl Number of fluids.

Analogy and recent developments in heat exchangers: Analogy between momentum and heat transfer. Recent developments in the design of compact heat exchangers, insulation-design and selection.

Heat transfer with phase change: Boiling and Condensation heat transfer, Heat transfer in Liquid metals, Flow in shell side of heat exchanger.

Text & Reference Books
J.G. Knudsen and D.L. Katz," Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer", McGraw Hill, New York, 1958.
O. Levenspiel, Engineering flow and Heat Exchange", Plenum Press, New York, 1998.
V. L. Streeter, “Fluid Dynamics”, McGraw Hill, New York, 1965.
J.P. Holman, “Heat Transfer”, Tata-McGraw Hill, Special Indian Edition, 2008.


General Review: Mechanisms: Separation factors and its dependence on process variables, classification and characterization, thermodynamic analysis and energy utilization, kinetics and mass transport. Theory of cascades and its application in single and multistage operation for binary and multi component separations.

Membrane Separations: Types and choice of membranes, their merits, commercial, pilot plant polarization of membrane processes and laboratory membrane permeators, dialysis, reverse osmosis, ultra filtration, Concentration and economics of membrane operations, Design controlling factors.

Separation by Sorption Techniques: Types and choice of adsorbents, chromatographic techniques, Types, Retention theory mechanism, Design controlling factors ion exchange chromatography equipment and commercial processes, recent advances and economics.
Ionic Separations: Controlling factors, applications, Theory mechanism and - equipments for electrophoresis, dielectrophoresis and electro dialysis - commercial applications – Design considerations.

Thermal Separation: Thermal diffusion: Basic rate law, phenomenological theories of thermal diffusion for gas and liquid mixtures, Equipments design and applications. Zone melting: Equilibrium diagrams, Controlling factors, Apparatus and applications.

Other Techniques: Adductive crystallization molecular addition compounds, Clathrate compounds and adducts, Equipments, Applications, Economics and commercial processes.
Foam Separation: Surface adsorption, Nature of foams, Apparatus, Applications, and Controlling factors.
Principles and applications of  supercritical fluid extraction.

Text & Reference Books
H.M. Schoen," New Chemical Engineering Separation Techniques”, Wiley Interscience, New York, 1972.
C.J. King, "Separation Processes", Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 1982.
B. Sivasankar, “Bioseparations – Principles and Techniques”, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, 2005.
R.E. Lacey and S. Loeb, “Industrial Processing with Membranes,” Wiley –Inter sciences, New York, 1972.
Ronald W. Roussel, Hand book of Separation Process Technology, John Wiley, New York, 1987.
H.R.C. Pratt, “Counter-Current Separation Processes,” Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1967.
McHugh,MA and Krukonis, VJ, Supercritical Fluid Extraction: Principles and Practice, Butterworth-Heinmann, 1994.

Nature and organization of optimization problems: Examples of applications of optimization, the essential features of optimization problems, formulation of objective functions, general procedure for solving optimization problems, obstacles to optimization. Classification of models, model building procedures, fitting functions to empirical data, the method of least squares, factorial experimental designs, fitting a model to data subject to constraints.

Basic concepts of optimization: Continuity of functions, unimodal versus Multimodel functions. Convex and Concave functions, Convex region, Necessary and sufficient conditions for an extremum of an unconstrained function, interpretation of the objective function in terms of its quadratic approximation

Optimization of unconstrained functions: one-dimensional search: Numerical methods for optimizing a function of one variable, scanning and bracketing procedures, Newton’s, Quasi-Newton’s and Secant methods of uni-dimensional search, region elimination methods, polynomial approximation methods.

Unconstrained multivariable optimization: Direct methods, random search, grid search, uni-variate search, simplex method, conjugate search directions, Powell’s method, indirect methods- first order, gradient method, conjugate gradient method, second order gradient, Newton method, relation between conjugate gradient methods and Quasi-Newton method.

Linear programming and applications: Basic concepts in linear programming, Degenerate LP’s – graphical solution, natural occurrence of linear constraints, the simplex method of solving linear programming problems, standard LP form, obtaining a first feasible solution, the revised simplex method, sensitivity analysis, duality in linear programming, the Karmarkar algorithm, LP applications.

Optimization of Unit operations: Recovery of waste heat, shell & tube heat exchangers, evaporator design, liquid-liquid extraction process, optimal design of staged distillation column.

Text & Reference Books:
Optimization of chemical processes by T. F. Edgar and Himmelblau D, Mc-Graw. Hill.2001.
Optimization for Engineering Design: Algorithms and Examples,  Kalyanmoy Deb, PHI-2009
Engineering Optimization: Theory and Practice, Singaresu S. Rao, 4th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
Optimization Concepts and Applications in Engineering, Ashok Belegundu, Tirupathi R. Chandrupatla, Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Practical Optimization: Algorithms and Engineering Applications, Andreas Antoniou, Wu-shing Lu, Springer, 2007.


Introduction to modeling, a systematic approach to model building, classification of models.
Conservation principles, thermodynamic principles of process systems.

Development of steady state and dynamic lumped and distributed parameter models based on
first principles. Analysis of ill-conditioned systems.

Development of grey box models. Empirical model building. Statistical model calibration and
validation. Population balance models. Examples.

Solution strategies for lumped parameter models. Stiff differential equations. Solution
methods for initial value and boundary value problems. Euler’s method. R-K method,
shooting method, finite difference methods. Solving the problems using MATLAB/SCILAB.

Solution strategies for distributed parameter models. Solving parabolic, elliptic and
hyperbolic partial differential equations. Finite element and finite volume methods.

Text & Reference Books
K. M. Hangos and I. T. Cameron, “Process Modelling and Model Analysis”, Academic Press, 2001.
W.L. Luyben, “Process Modelling, Simulation and Control for Chemical Engineers”, 2nd Edn., McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, 1990.
W. F. Ramirez, “Computational Methods for Process Simulation”, Butterworths, 1995.
Mark E. Davis, “Numerical Methods and Modelling for Chemical Engineers”, John Wiley & Sons, 1984.
Singiresu S. Rao, “Applied Numerical Methods for Engineers and Scientists” Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2001



Nonlinear algebraic equations: Multivariable Newton Raphson technique.
Regression analysis: Lagrangian interpolation, Pade approximations.

Ordinary differential equations- initial value problems: Runge-Kutta fourth order method Ordinary differential equations- Boundary value problems: Shooting techniques

Orthogonal collocation: To solve BVP problems like Tubular reactor with axial diffusion, calculating effectiveness factor for a spherical catalyst particle, fin effectiveness.

Orthogonal collocation on Finite elements:  Tubular reactor with axial diffusion, calculating effectiveness factor for a spherical catalyst particle, fin effectiveness.

Orthogonal collection to solve partial differential equations like Tubular reactor wit h radial diffusion.

Text & Reference books:
S.K. Gupta, Numerical methods in Engineering” 2nd Edition, New age international limited, New Delhi, 2010.
Steven C. Chapra and Raymond P. Canale, Numerical Methods for  Engineers, 6th Edition, McGraw Hill Higher Education, 2010.
Mark E.Davis, Numerical Methods and Modeling for Chemical Engineers, Wiley, 1984.
Alkis Constantinides and Navid Mostoufi, Numerical Methods for Chemical Engineers with MATLAB applications, Prentice Hall, 1999.
P. Ahuja, Introduction to Numerical methods in Chemical Engineering, prentice hall of India, 2013.
S. Pushpavanam, Mathematical Methods in Chemical Engineering, Prentice hall of India, 2013.


Composition of crude oils and petroleum products:
Pure components, compounds whose chemistry is incompletely defined Asphaltenes and Resins
Fractionation and elemental analysis of crude oils and petroleum cuts:
Preparatory and analytical fractionations, Elemental analysis

Characterization of crude oils and petroleum fractions:
Characterization of crude oils according to dominant characteristics based on overall physical properties, Characterization of crude oils and petroleum fractions based on structural analysis, Characterization of petroleum fractions by chromatographic techniques, Characterization of petroleum fractions based on chemical reactions.

Methods for the calculation of hydrocarbon physical properties:
Characterization required for calculating physical properties, Basic calculations of physical properties, properties of liquids & gases, Estimation of properties related to phase changes.

Characteristics of Petroleum products for energy use (Motor fules- Heating fuels):
Properties related to the optimization of combustion, Properties related to storage and distribution of petroleum products, Motor fuels, heating fuels and environmental pretention.
Characteristics of non –fuel petroleum products:
Characteristics of petroleum solvents, Naphtha’s, Lubricants, Industrial oils and related products, Waxes and Paraffins, Asphalts and Other products.

Standards and specifications of petroleum products:
Definitions of the terms specification and standard, Organizations for standardization, Evolution   of the Standards and specifications.
Evaluation of crude oils:
Overall physical and chemical properties of crude oils related to transport, storage and price, TBP crude oil distillation-analysis of fractions, Graphical representation of analyses.
Additives for motor fuels and lubricants:
Additives for Gasolines, Diesel fuels, and Lubricants.

Text & Reference Books
Wauquier,J.P., Petroleum Refining: Crude Oil, Petroleum Products, Process Flowsheets, Editions Technip, 1995.
Riazi, M.R., Characterization and properties of petroleum fractions,  ASTM International, 2005
James G. Speight, Petroleum chemistry and refining, CRC Press, 1997
J. G. Speight, Handbook of petroleum product analysis, John Wiley & Sons, 2001
Nelson, R.L., Petroleum Refinery Engineering, 4th Edition, McGraw Hill, 1958.
Annual Book of  ASTM Standards-Section 5.
Fuel Specifications by Indian Bureau of Standards
Motor Gasoline Technical Review-Chevron, 2009
Diesel Fuel Technical Review-Chevron, 2007
Aviation Fuels Technical Review-Chevron, 2006
IP Standards for Petroleum and its Products: Methods for rating Fuels, Institute of Petroleum (UK), 1960.


Thermal Conversion Processes: Thermodynamic analysis of technological processes, Theoretical background of thermal processes, Reaction systems, industrial implementation of thermal processes, elements of reactor design.

Processes on Acid Catalysts: Theoretical basis of catalytic cracking, Industrial catalytic cracking, Design elements for the Reactor-Regenerator system, and other processes on acid catalysts.

Processes on Metallic Catalysts:  Hydrofining and Hydrotreating processes

Processes using Bifunctional catalysts: Hydroisomerization of Alkanes, Hydrocracking.

Catalytic reforming, Process combinations and complex processing schemes.

Text & Reference Books:
Serge Raseev, Thermal and Catalytic processes in refining, CRC press, 2003
Jorge Ancheyta and J. G. Speight, Hydroprocessing of Heavy Oil and Residua, CRC press, 2007
Murray R. Gray, Upgrading Petroleum Residues and Heavy Oils, Marcel Dekker, 1994
Surinder Parkash, Refining Processes Handbook, Gulf Professional Publishing, 2003
Reza Sadeghbeigi, Fluid Catalytic Cracking Handbook, Gulf Professional Publishing, 2000
Hsu, C. S and P R Robinson, Practical Advances in Petroleum Processing, Volume 1 & 2, Springer, 2006
Fahim, M.A., T.A. Al-Sahhaf and A.S. Ellilani, Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining, Elsevier, 2010.

Sources of energy, types of fuels-energy and relative forms:  Calorific value- gross and net value, calculation of calorific value from fuel analysis, experimental determination energy resources present and future energy demands with reference to India.
Coal: origin, occurrence, reserves, petrography, classification, ranking, analysis, testing, storage, coal carbonization and byproduct recovery, liquefaction of coal, gasification of coal, burning of coal and firing mechanism, burning of pulverized coal.
Liquid fuels: Petroleum: origin, occurrence, reserves, composition, classification, characteristics, fractionation, reforming, cracking, petroleum products, specification of petroleum products, burning of liquid fuels.
Gaseous Fuels: Natural gas, coke oven gas, producer gas, water gas, LPG, burning of gaseous fuels.
Renewable and Future Energy Sources: Energy from biomass and biogas, solar energy, wind energy, hydrogen energy and nuclear energy
Applications of Energy Sources:  Boiler plants, nuclear plants, Turbines, Gasifiers, Fuel cells, Solar cells, concentrated photovoltaics
Combined Heat and Power Systems: Waste heat recovery, sources of waste heat and potential application, various types of heat recovery systems, regenerators, recuperators, waste heat boilers.
Energy Auditing and Conservation: short term, medium term, long term schemes, energy conversion, energy index, energy cost, representation of energy consumption, sanky diagram, energy auditing.
Conservation methods in process industries, theoretical analysis, practical limitations.

Text & Reference Books:
Fuels, Furnaces and Refractories , O.P.Gupta, 3rd Edition, Khanna Publishers, 1996
Fuels and Combustion, Samir Sarkar, 3nd Edition, Universities Press, 2009
Non-Conventional Energy Resources by G.D.Rai, Khanna Publishers, 2010.
Solar Energy: Principles of Thermal Collection and Storage,  S.P.Sukhatme, J.Nayak, Tata  McGraw-Hill, 2008.
Conventional Energy Technology: Fuel and Chemical Energy, S.B.Spandya, Tata McGraw-Hill, 1987.
Fuel and Energy, Harker and Backhurst, Academic press London, 1981.
Fuel Science, Harker and Allen, Oliver and Boyd, 1972.
Energy management, 1st Edition, W.R.Murphy, G.Mc.Kay Butterwolfer & Co. Ltd., 2001.


Introduction: Solid waste
Definition of solid wastes – types of solid wastes – sources – industrial, mining, agricultural and domestic – characteristics. Solid waste problems – impact on environmental health – concepts of waste reduction, recycling and reuse.

Collection, Segregation and Transport of Municipal Solid Wastes:
Handling and segregation of wastes at source. Collection and storage of municipal solid wastes; analysis of collection systems. Transfer stations – labeling and handling of hazardous wastes.
Municipal Solid Waste Management:
Solid waste processing technologies. Mechanical and thermal volume reduction. Biological and chemical techniques for energy and other resource recovery: composting, vermicomposting, termigradation, fermentation. Incineration of solid wastes. Disposal in landfills: site selection, design, and operation of sanitary landfills; leachate and landfill gas management; landfill closure and post – closure environmental monitoring; landfill remediation. Regulatory aspects of municipal solid waste management.

Hazardous Wastes:
Hazardous waste definition. Physical and biological routes of transport of hazardous substances – sources and characterization categories and control. Sampling and analysis of hazardous wastes – analytical approach for hazardous waste characterization – proximate analysis – survey analysis – directed analysis – analytical methods.
Hazardous Wastes Management:
Sources and characteristics: handling, collection, storage and transport, TSDF concept. Hazardous waste treatment technologies – Physical, chemical and thermal treatment of hazardous wastes: solidification, chemical fixation, encapsulation, pyrolysis and incineration. Hazardous wastes landfills – site selections, design and operation. HW reduction, recycling and reuse, regulatory aspects of HWM.

Biomedical Waste Management:
Biomedical waste: Definition, sources, classification, collection, segregation treatment and disposal and Regulations.

Radioactive Waste Management:
Radioactive waste: Definition, sources, low level and high level radioactive wastes and their management, radiation standards   by ICRP and AERB

E-Waste Management:
Waste characteristics, generation, collection, transport and disposal. Rules and Regulations for E-Waste management.

Text & Reference books:
Guidelines for storage of Incinerable Hazardous waste by the operators of common Hazardous waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities and capture HW Incinerators, Central Pollution Control Board Delhi, and November, 2008.
Hand book of solid waste management, 2nd Edition. George Tchobanoglous and Frank Kreith, McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2002.
Developing Integrated Solid waste management plan, Training manual, Vol 4: ISWM plan, United Nations Environment programme, 2009.
Integrated Solid Waste Management: A Life Cycle Inventory, 2nd Edition, Forbes R. McDougall, Peter R. White, Marina Franke, Peter Hindle,   Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.
Hazardous waste management Charles A. Wentz. Second edition, McGraw Hill International, 1995.
Integrated solid waste management George Tchobanoglous, Hilary Theisen & Sammuel A. Vigil, McGraw-Hill, 1993.
Criteria for hazardous waste landfills – CPCB guidelines 2000.
Standard handbook of Hazardous waste treatment and disposal by Harry M. Freeman, McGraw Hill 1997.
Management of Solid waste in developing countries by Frank Flintoff, WHO regional publications, 1976.


Introduction, Formation of clusters and Nano particles from a supersaturated vapor and selected properties,

Particle synthesis by chemical routes, Formation of nanostructures by mechanical attrition

Nanostructures of metals and ceramics

Properties of Nanostructred materials: Chemical properties, Mechanical properties

Special Nanomaterials and application of Nano materials: Porous Si Nanostructures

Text & Reference books:
A.S. Edelstein and R.C. Cammarata, “Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties and applications”, Taylor & Francis group, 1996.
Michael F. Ashby, Paulo J.Ferreira and Daniel L.Schodak, Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies and Design, Butterworth-Heinmann, 2009.


Indian energy perspective:
Introduction, Indian’s energy scenario, Supply projections, Investments, energy related Emissions, improving energy efficiency.
Thermal Utilities:
Combustion of fuel, Heat content of fuel: NCV & GCV, Basic combustion reactions, Ideal combustion, Primary function of a burner, optimizing excess air and combustion, storage handing and preparation of fuel oil, Boiler, efficient utilization of steam, furnaces, Refractories, Thermal insulation, Energy conservation opportunities in DG Sets.
Electrical Utilities:
Electrical motors, and furnaces, compressed air system, Pumps, blowers, fans and variable speed drives, Refrigeration & air conditioning system, Energy savings in transformers & Lighting, towards energy efficient homes, energy audit study conducted by PCRA.

Refining sector:
Introduction, refining sector in India, oil trade, energy consumption in refining industry, energy efficiency opportunities in petroleum refineries, refinery environmental issues.
Exploration and Production:
Introduction, energy efficiency improvement scope in upstream sector, energy efficiency in exploration activity, activities of conservation of oil and gas in ONGC, energy conservation measures in OIL.
LPG Bottling plants:
Introduction, energy conservation opportunities in air compressors, optimization of power supply system billing and demand side management, PF Control, voltage optimization, Energy saving opportunities in LPG pumps, energy conservation in lighting, energy conservation opportunity in LPG compressor and other energy conservation opportunities.

Power generation:
Installed capacity, generation, power supply position, Potential for energy saving,.
Iron & steel:
Introduction, present capacity & growth potential, Iron & steel manufacturing process, Production of crude steel in India through different processes, energy consumption in steel plants, energy efficiency in steel industry in India, details of the world’s best processes, world’s best practices of energy efficiency, energy efficient technologies being used in iron & steel industry in Japan.

Introduction, raw material profile, energy profile, potential for energy efficiency improvement, technologies & measures for energy efficiency improvements and case studies.

Pulp & Paper:
Introduction, manufacturing process, energy profile and intensity, energy saving potential, technologies for energy conservation and case studies.
Introduction, present capacity y& growth, manufacturing process of cement, specific energy consumption in cement plants, energy efficiency measures adopted by Indian cement industry, energy consumption in cement plants, best practices of energy efficiency in cement industry, energy efficient technologies being used in cement plants in Japan.

Introduction, energy profile, manufacturing process-sugar and byproducts, technologies & measures for energy efficiency improvements and case studies.
Aluminum Industry:
Introduction, present capacity & growth potential, aluminum manufacturing process, energy consumption in aluminum plants, energy efficiency measures undertaken in aluminum plants in India, case studies of energy conservation in Indian aluminum plants, energy consumption, world’s best practice for energy efficiency in aluminum industry, Energy efficient technologies being used in aluminum plants in Japan, Directory of ENCON  measures with expected benefits.
Impact Climate change in India:
Introduction, global warming, GHG in the atmosphere, UNFCCC, Indian scenario on climate change, GHG mitigation in different sectors in India, GHG mitigation in Industrial sector & transport sector, GHG mitigation in Residential, commercial and institutional building sector, other GHG mitigation options, NAPCC.

Text & Reference Books:
Richard Greene, Process Energy Conservation, Chemical Engineering, 1982.
Practical Guide to Energy Conservation, Petroleum Conservation Research Association, Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas, Government of India, 2009.
Nagabhushana Raju, k., Industrial Energy Conservation Techniques, Atlantic, 2007.
W.F. Kenny, Energy Conservation In the Process Industries, Academic Press, 1984.


Polymer Materials and Processing: Plastics and their classification, Thermoplastic and Thermosetting plastics, Polymerization reactions, mechanism, Functionality, Structure of non-crystalline Linear polymers, Homo polymers and co-polymers, Degree of Polymerization, Crystallinity and Stereoisomerism in plastics, solidification of thermoplastics, Glass transition temperature,
Industrial Polymerization Methods:  solidification of thermoplastics, Glass transition temperature, Processing of Plastic materials: Processes used for Thermo plastics and Thermo settings, General purpose and Engineering thermoplastics and Thermosetting plastics: Phenolic resins, Epoxyresins, Amino resins, Elasts, Rubbers, Vulcanization-Conducting Polymers for electronic applications.

Deformation and strengthening of Plastic materials: Mechanisms, Strengthening of Thermo plastics and Thermosets,  Stress-strain diagrams, Effect of Temperature on the mechanical properties, Creep and Fracture of Plastic and polymeric materials, Stress relaxation, strain-time relationship, Fibre and particulate reinforced of polymer  composites, Load distribution  and their advantages in Engineering applications -Polymer applications in chemical, Biomedical and electronic fields

Ceramic Materials and Processing: Crystal structure of ceramic materials, Silicate structures, Processing of Ceramics  Traditional and Engineering Ceramics, Glasses, Structure & Composition, Forming methods of Glasses, Strengthening of glasses, Mechanical, chemical properties of ceramics and glasses, stress-strain relationship, Ceramic–matrix composites, Ceramic coatings and Surface applications, Ceramics in Chemical, electrical and Biomedical Applications.

Electric and Electronic Materials Processing:
Electrical conduction in different materials, Semiconductors and their significance in electronic devices and gadgets, types of semiconductors, intrinsic-extrinsic-Energy-Band diagrams, quantitative relationships for conduction, Effect of temperature on semiconductivity, Effect of doping on carrier concentration, Semiconductors, Materials related, semiconductor devices.
Microelectronics, fabrication of microelectronic Integrated circuits, Various techniques in practice and processing, Processing of Semiconductor chip-design and fabrication, Metal Oxide semiconductors, Compound semiconductors, ceramic semiconductors, ceramics as insulators and capacitors, nano electronics, Conducting polymers and their application in electronic devices and in communication- Fiber optic Materials and nanoelectronics.

Stability of the materials under service conditions: Corrosion and Oxidation aspects and care and precautions to be taken while selecting the material, designing and maintanance of the materials cited in all the above units.

Text Books & Reference Books:
Javad Hashemi and William F Smith, Foundations of Materials Science and Engineering, 4th Edition, McGraw Hill International, 2005.
William D Callister and David G. Rethwisch, Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, 8th Edition, Wiley, 2009.
Eugene A Irene, Electronic Materials Science, John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
Notes of Dr Seth P Bates, Silicon Wafer Processing, Applied Materials, 2000
James W. Mayer and S.S. Lau, Electronic Materials Science for Integrated Circuits in Si and GaAs, Prentice Hall, 1990.
Fontana M G and N.D. Greene, Corrosion Engineering, McGraw Hill, 1967.


Introduction: Air Pollution History, Air Pollution regulatory framework – Introduction, The regulatory system, Laws and regulations: The differences, The clean air act, Provisions relating to enforcement, Closing comments and recent developments.

Fundamentals: Gases, Introduction, Measurement fundamentals, Chemical and physical properties, Ideal gas law, Phase equilibrium, Conservation laws.
Incinerators: Introduction, Design and performance equations, Operation and maintenance, and improving performance.
Absorbers: Introduction, Design and performance equations, Operation and maintenance, and improving performance.

Fundamentals: Particulates, Introduction, Particle collection mechanisms, Fluid-particle dynamics, Particle sizing and measurement methods, particle size distribution, Collection efficiency.
Gravity settling chambers: Introduction, Design and performance equations, Operation and maintenance, and improving performance.

Cyclones: Introduction, Design and performance equations, Operation and maintenance, and improving performance.
Electrostatic precipitators: Introduction, Design and performance equations, Operation and maintenance, and improving performance.

Venturi Scrubbers: Introduction, Design and performance equations, Operation and maintenance, and improving performance.
Baghouses: Introduction, Design and performance equations, Operation and maintenance, and improving performance.

Text & Reference Books:
Luis Theodore, Air pollution control equipment calculations, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008.
Jaine Benitez, Process engineering and design for air pollution control, Prentice-Hall, 1993.


Introduction- Risk concepts, Hazardous event, what is risk, typical incidents that concern us, Industrial incidents of major significance.
Government of India: The Factories Act 1948, amended 1954, 1970, 1976 and 1987; The manufacture, storage and import of hazardous chemicals rules, 1989; The Explosives Act 1884; The Petroleum Act 1934; National policy on safety, Health and environment at workplace, Government of India; Constitutional provisions of occupational safety and health, The Constitution of India.

Risk terminology- Identification of hazards and structured hazards analysis tools-Basics of HAZOP- Pitfalls with HAZOP, Optimization of PHAs & sizing of nodes

What if/checklist- Failure mode and effects analysis- Screening level risk analysis (SLRA)-
PHA revalidation- Management of changes (MOC), Introduction, Changes justifying PHAs, MOCs implementation; - Estimation of time needed for PHAs.

PHA protocols and administrative and engineering controls-Human factors-Loss of containment-Managing and justifying recommendations-PHA team leadership-Safety integrity levels

Layer of protection analysis- Quantitative risk assessment- Introduction to consequence analysis- Consequence mechanisms- Fire & Explosion effects- Explosion modeling methods- Consequence analysis calculations- specific release scenarios- Use of consequence analysis.

Text & Reference Books:
Nigel Hyatt, Guidelines for Process Hazards Analysis, Hazards Identification & Risk Analysis,  CRC Press, New York, 2003.
Harris R Grumberg and Joseph J. Cramer, Risk assessment and Risk management for the chemical process industry”, John Wiley & sons, 1991.
Marvin Rausand, Risk assessment: theory method and applications, Wiley, 2011.


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